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Flashcards in After Midterm 1 Deck (28):

In Plato's Phaedo, why not resent death?

-Cebe’s objection: If suicide is bad so is death
-Socrates’ hope for good after life
-Philosophers practice for death
-Death is separation of soul from body
-Body and its pleasures distract: hinder knowledge
-The Just itself, etc., known by intellect alone
-So death frees one for true knowledge
-Most are courageous out of fear, etc.


Stage 1: Common Notions in Plato's Phaedo

• Cebe’s objection
• Reciprocal Process (70c-72e)
• Recollection: Reminiscence (72e-77)
• Unchanging, Non composite, Invisible (77-84d)


Stage 2: Critical Notions in Plato's Phaedo

• Simmias’ Objection (85b-86e)
• Cebes Objection (87-88d)
• Method (89-91c)


Stage 3: Responses in Plato's Phaedo

• Responses to Simmias (91e-95)
-Inconsistency (91e-95)
-Disanalogy (93-94b)
-Responsibility (94b-95)


What are the Forms? (Plato's Theory of the Forms)

• The Forms are real things that exist in an ultimate reality, the “Realm of Being”.
• Distinguish this from a “Realm of Becoming”, our world, where everything is on its way to becoming something else,
• A usual example of a Form is a concept (a genus), like greenness, which exists as a thing in ultimate reality.


What things have Forms (Plato's Phaedo)

• Almost anything can have a Form
• Examples:
Plato claims: “… all those things to which we can attach the word ‘itself’ ”


How are Forms related to things (Phaedo)

• Sometimes Plato speaks of things participating in, or sharing in, the Forms
• Other times Plato speaks of things imitating the Forms.


What is the status of the Forms? (Plato's Phaedo)

• They exist
• They are separate from the sensible realm. So we cannot see, touch, etc. them.


What are the Form's Characteristics? (Plato's Phaedo)

• Eternal
• Unchanging
• Intelligible
• True Causes (Reasons for things)
• Standards for things
• Perfect


Why do definitions of general terms suggest something in common

Standards are needed eg. Equality

Ordinary things change, but the concepts don’t.

Some truths are timeless.


Who is Aristotle

Aristotle was one of Plato’s greatest student, then becomes Plato’s greatest critic.


Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1

• The good is that at which all things aim (a telos or “end). [1.1]
• Some ends are activities some are products of activities
• Is there some end (goal) of all the things we do? [1.2]
-If so, it would be desired for its own sake.
-The science of such a good seems to be politics.


The nature of ethics (Nicomachean Ethics)

• Ethics is not a precise science: It deals with things that are “for the most part” true. [1.3]
• The young are not the right audience for lectures on political science.
-They’re not experienced enough.
-They tend to follow their passions.


Happiness: what is it? (Nicomachean Ethics)

• General opinion: happiness is living well and faring (doing) well. [1.4]
-Consists in pleasure, wealth, or honour.
-Aristotle infers this from the way people live [1.5].
• Plato’s view: There is a Good apart from the goods of life.


What is Aristotle's Way (Nicomachean Ethics)

• We must begin with things evident to us. [1.4]
• Consequently, one who studies politics or ethics must have good habits.


Three types of life

•1) The life of enjoyment
•2) Political life
•3) Contemplative life
-will consider later


Plato's Form of the Good (Nicomachean Ethics)

• An “uphill” task to consider because Plato was a friend.
-Friends are dear, but truth is higher than friendship.
• Notice how “good” is used in different categories:
-substance (God; “goods”)
-quality (ex, “good person”
-relation (ex, better than— comparative of “goods”)


Aristotle's Categories

1) Substance
2) Quantity
3) Quality
4) Relation
5) Activity
6) Passivity
7) When
8) Where
9) Position
10) Habit


Socrate's Categories

-70 years old
-Father of 2 boys
-Condemned by the jury of Athens 399 BCE
-Wearing sandals


Critique of Form of the Good

• “Good” has many senses as “being”.
-But Good cannot be something present in all good things and yet be a single thing (“good itself”)
• Where there is one idea, there is one science
-But there are many sciences of good things.


Aristotle's Position (Nicomachean Ethics)

• Aristotle rejects Plato’s position:
• “The good, therefore, is not something common answering to one idea”
• The idea/Form of the Good is not attainable by man; but “we are now seeking something attainable”
• How will the weave, the carpenter, or the doctor be better at what they do by knowing the Good itself?


Plato's argument on good

There are many different shades of green (Neon, olive drab, forest green, lime green).

This can be used to exemplify Plato’s argument that good has different forms (Good people, good food, etc.), they are real, but you cannot see them. They are not materialistic, but more of a spiritual being


Aristotle's argument on good

Eudaimonia= happiness Eu means good. Daimonia means spirit.

Aristotle does not believe that happiness is a feeling or an emotion, but rather an activity.


Why might books on Aristotle might not be completely accurate

Aristotle did not intend for his writings to be published. He used his notes from lectures or his students notes from lectures, which means they might not be totally accurate depending on how well the student takes notes.


Vegetative souls

-Take in nutrients
-Expel wastes


Sensitive souls

-Take in nutrients
-Expel wastes
-Plus sensation


Rational souls

-Take in nutrients
-Expel wastes
-plus reasoning


Aristotle's definition of the soul

Activity of the soul in accord with virtue or the best virtue is a complete life.