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Flashcards in After Test 1 Deck (82):
1

A patient with right yoked prisms will have an expansion of visual space where?

On the left

2

For what two conditions would you NOT recommend an add?

AE, CI (accommodation excess, convergence insufficiency)

3

In divergence excess, what lenses might you consider adding?

Minus for distance

4

What lenses would you prescribe in a case of divergence insufficiency?

the Most Plus Best Visual Acuity

5

As a general rule, how do you orient prism for patients with midline shifts?

Base opposite of the shift

6

Vision is made up of what?

Higher association areas

7

What prism orientation would you give to a patient with an anterior midline shift?

Base Down

8

Prism adaptation can modulate lateral shift of attention, and what else?

Prompt shifts from one level of processing to another

9

Over what percent of school age children have a vision problem that could affect the learning process?

25%

10

What are the possible diagnoses of someone with a normal AC/A ratio?

Vergence dysfunction Basic phoria (Eso or exo)

11

BI prisms do what to the muscle tone of the neck and upper back?

Reduce muscle tone

12

The "identification" circle from Skeffington is associated with which system?

Parvo - "what"

13

What is another name for monocular fixation in a binocular field?

Anti-suppression

14

What are the possible diagnoses of someone with a high AC/A ratio?

Convergence Excess

Divergence Excess (the excesses)

15

Which is the receptor organ?

Eye

16

What is Prentice position of a prism?

Prism is oriented so that light enters at an angle of 90 degrees to the first surface

17

BU prisms create an artificial what?

Decrease in the visual spatial volume

18

What are normal near BO ranges?

17/21/11

19

What is often the quickest, best option for AI?

Plus lenses

20

The dysfunctions of the visual system are the response to what?

Stress

21

Where does the deviation take place in a prism in Prentice position?

At the exit surface

22

In convergence excess, it is very important to fix which refractive error?

Hyperopia

23

In convergence excess, prescribing lenses to fix myopia may cause what?

The symptoms to worsen by increasing convergence, and increasing the eso

24

Prisms affect which 4 systems?

Visual

Kinesthetic

Vestibular

Proprioceptive

25

What is the sequence of visual therapy?

Monocular

Bi-ocular

Monocular fixation in a binocular field

Binocular

26

Which of the Skeffington circles comes first, centering or identification? Why?

Centering. It is the "where". You have to know where something is before you can find out what it is

27

What are the prerequisites to fusion?

Normal correspondence

No peripheral suppression

No significant amblyopia

28

BO prisms displace the visual where?

Outward

29

What are the two main information pathways?

Parvocellular Magnocellular

30

What are the main methods for VT?

Lenses Prisms Motor therapy

31

Which system is the ambient system?

Magno

32

What prism orientation would you give a patient with a right midline shift?

Base left

33

What are normal distance BO ranges?

9/19/10

34

If MEM shows ___ or near phoria is ___, what lenses should be given?

Plus

35

BI prisms to what to the visual space?

Create an apparent increase of the visual space

36

Why is it easier to read for pleasure than to study?

The parasympathetic system kicks in and actually creates an easier environment

37

When would you not consider minus lenses?

Low AC/A Low CA/C Esophoria Low BI at near Low amplitude of accommodation Fails (-) on accommodative facility testing Is over 9

38

BO prisms do what to the visual space?

Create an apparent decrease of apparent visual space

39

When using red/green filters for antisuppression, when will the red be visible?

When looking at a light source or an overlay

40

BD prisms create an artificial what?

Increase in visual spatial volume

41

BO prisms do what to muscle tone of the neck and upper back?

Increase muscle tone

42

What are the 8 conditions under which you would consider prescribing added plus?

High AC/A ratio Hyperopia Esophoria at near Low PRA Normal to high BO at near High MEM Low amplitude of accommodation Fails (-) on accommodative facility

43

Roughly what percentage of the retinal fibers run in the parvo system?

80%

44

How are plastic prisms calibrated?

To angle of minimum deviation

45

What does the sympathetic nervous system do in the eyes?

Relaxes accommodation Relaxes convergence (or stimulates divergence) Prepares the body for danger from a distance

46

What 4 things can lenses affect?

Perception Posture Orientation Localization

47

What are the four categories of response?

Catatoxic Syntoxic Run Frozen

48

BI prism displaces the visual where?

Outward

49

Where will the posture of a patient with a midline shift lean?

Toward the midline shift

50

What are the higher cortical functions of visual information processing?

Perception Cognition Visual-motor integration Visual-auditory integration Visual-verbal integration Visual integration with other attentional systems

51

How clear we can see is called ___.

Sight

52

Which lenses enhance figure?

Minus

53

What develops automaticity?

Repitition

54

Which lenses enhance ground?

Plus

55

What is the main function of the LGN?

To filter or suppress the information from the eye to the visual cortex

56

In convergence insufficiency, it is possible that correcting hyperopia will do what?

Exacerbate the symptoms by increasing the exo at near (plus lenses diverge)

57

When would you not consider added plus?

Low AC/A ratio Myopia Exo at near Low NRA Low BO at near Low MEM Normal amplitude of accommodation Fails (+) on accommodative facility

58

What are the possible diagnoses of someone with a low AC/A ratio?

Convergence Insufficiency Divergence Insufficiency (The vergence insufficiencies)

59

BD prism shift spatial volume where?

Up and out from the center of gravity

60

What are Skeffington's four circles?

Antigravity Centering Identification Speech and language

61

What are the apparent volume changes in a prism?

Expansion toward apex Contraction toward base

62

When would you consider adding minus?

High AC/A High CA/C Exo Normal to high BI at near Normal amplitude of accommodation Fails (+) on accommodative facility Is younger than 6

63

Which system is the focal system?

Parvo

64

What does the parasympathetic system to in the eyes?

Miosis Accommodation Convergence

65

How are glass prisms calibrated?

By Prentice's rule

66

Which route does the magno pathway follow?

Dorsal

67

BU prisms shift spatial volume where?

Down and in from the center of gravity

68

Which is a faster system, parvo or magno?

Magno

69

Which of the VT plans has 4 phases rather than 3?

Divergence excess

70

Which is a faster system and why; vergence or accommodation?

Vergence - it is striated muscle, which is faster than the smooth muscle that controls accommodation

71

What do BO prisms enhance?

Figure (force convergence)

72

The parvo system follows which route?

Ventral

73

For what two conditions would you give an add?

AI, CE (accommodation insufficiency, convergence excess)

74

When using red/green filters for antisuppression, when will the red not be visible?

When using red printed material

75

Which of the responses if the flight response?

Syntoxic

76

What are normal near BI ranges?

13/21/13

77

What do BI prisms enhance?

Ground (they force you to diverge, taking focus off of what if directly in front of you)

78

In convergence insufficiency, which refractive error should you be most inclined to correct?

Myopia - minus lenses might help stimulate convergence

79

Which of the responses is the fight response?

Catatoxic

80

What parts of they eye feed into the parvo system?

Mainly the central retina and foveal receptors

81

What does the parvo system respond to?

Details

82

What are normal distance BI ranges?

x/7/4