Agents affecting Volume and Ion Content of Body Fluids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Agents affecting Volume and Ion Content of Body Fluids Deck (17):
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Isotonic Contraction

Volume contraction in which sodium and water are lost in isotonic proportions; decrease in total volume, but no change in osmolality

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Causes of Isotonic Contraction

Vomiting, diarrhea, kidney disease, and misuse of diurectics

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Treatment of Isotonic Contraction

Fluids that are isotonic to plasma, 0.9% NS, replenish slowly to prevent pulmonary edema

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Hypertonic Contraction

Loss of water exceeds loss of sodium; reduced extracellular fluid volume and increase in osmolality

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Causes of hypertonic contraction

Excessive sweating, osmotic diuresis, concentrated food given to infants; secondary to extensive burns or CNS disorders that interfere with thirst

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Treatment of hypertonic contraction

Hypotonic fluid or fluids that contain no solutes at all, initial therapy: drink water

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Hypotonic contraction

Loss of sodium exceeds loss of water, both volume and osmolality of extracellular fluid are reduced

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Causes of hypotonic contraction

Excessive loss of sodium through the kidney (diuretic therapy, chronic renal insufficiency, lack of aldosterone)

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Treatment of hypotonic contraction

Mild: infusing isotonic sodium chloride solution for injection; severe: hypertonic solution (3%) NaCl
-Watch for signs of fluid overload

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Respiratory Alkalosis

Hyperventilation causes decreases in CO2

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Treatment of Respiratory Alkalosis

Mild: none, more severe: rebreathe CO2 expired breath

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Respiratory acidosis

Retention of CO2 secondary to hypoventilation

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Treatment of Respiratory Acidosis

Correction of respiratory impairment, infusion of sodium bicarbonate if severe

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Metabolic Alkalosis

Excessive loss of gastric acid, administration of alkalinizing salts

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Treatment of Metabolic Alkalosis

Solution of sodium chloride plus potassium chloride

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Metabolic Acidosis

Chronic renal failure, loss of bicarbonate during severe diarrhea, metabolic disorders, poisoning by methanol and certain medication

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Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis

Correction of underlying cause of acidosis, alkalinizing salt if severe