AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Hypnotic drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Hypnotic drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Hypnotic drugs Deck (48):
1

Hypnotic drugs are used to treat

Sleep disorders

2

Hypnotic drugs should

Produce drowsiness, encourage the onset and maintenance of sleep

3

Which chemical agents are used in the treatment of insomnia?

- Benzodiazepines
- Imidazopyridines
- Barbiturates

4

Select a hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative

Flurazepam

5

Tick a hypnotic agent – a barbituric acid derivative

Thyopental

6

Select a hypnotic drug, which is an imidazopyridine derivative

Zolpidem

7

Which hypnotic agents is absorbed slowly?

Temazepam

8

Which barbiturates is an ultra-short-acting drug?

Thiopental

9

Indicate the barbituric acid derivative, which has 4-5 days elimination half-life

Phenobarbital

10

Indicate the hypnotic benzodiazepine, which has the shortest elimination half-life

Triazolam

11

Which hypnotic drugs is more likely to cause cumulative and residual effects?

Phenobarbital

12

Which hypnotic drugs increases the activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme systems?

Phenobarbital

13

Hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme induction leads to

Barbiturate tolerance

14

True or False. Hypnotic benzodiazepines are more powerful enzyme inducers than barbiturates.

FALSE

15

Indicate the hypnotic drug, which does not change hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity?

- Flurazepam
- Zaleplon
- Triazolam

16

Barbiturates increase the rate of metabolism of

- Anticoagulants
- Digitalis compounds
- Glucocorticoids

17

Which agents inhibits hepatic metabolism of hypnotics?

Cimetidin

18

Which factors can influence the biodisposition of hypnotic agents?

- Alterations in the hepatic function resulting from a disease
- Old age
- Drug-induced increases or decreases in microsomal enzyme activities

19

Which hypnotics is preferred for elderly patients?

Temazepam

20

Which hypnotics is preferred in patients with limited hepatic function?

Zolpidem

21

Indicate the mechanism of barbiturate action (at hypnotic doses)

Increasing the duration of the GABA-gated Cl- channel openings

22

Imidazopyridines are

Selective agonists of the BZ1 (omega1) subtype of BZ receptors

23

Which hypnotic agents is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptor function?

- Zaleplon
- Flurazepam
- Zolpidem

24

Indicate a hypnotic drug - a selective agonist at the BZ1 receptor subtype

Zolpidem

25

Which hypnotic agents is able to interact with both BZ1 and BZ2 receptor subtypes?

Flurazepam

26

Indicate the competitive antagonist of BZ receptors

Flumazenil

27

Flumazenil blocks the actions of

Zolpidem

28

Indicate the agent, which interferes with GABA binding

Bicuculline

29

Which agents blocks the chloride channel directly?

Picrotoxin

30

Which agents is preferred in the treatment of insomnia?

Hypnotic benzodiazepines

31

Barbiturates are being replaced by hypnotic benzodiazepines because of

- Low therapeutic index
- Suppression in REM sleep
- High potential of physical dependence and abuse

32

Which benzodiazepines is used mainly for hypnosis?

Flurazepam

33

Indicate the main claim for an ideal hypnotic agent

- Rapid onset and sufficient duration of action
- Minor effects on sleep patterns
- Minimal “hangover” effects

34

Which stage of sleep is responsible for the incidence of dreams?

REM sleep

35

During slow wave sleep (stage 3 and 4 NREM sleep)

Somnambulism and nightmares occur

36

All of the hypnotic drugs induce

Decrease the duration of REM sleep

37

Which hypnotic drugs causes least suppression of REM sleep?

Flurazepam

38

Although the benzodiazepines continue to be the agents of choice for insomnia, they have

- The possibility of psychological and physiological dependence
- Synergistic depression of CNS with other drugs (especially alcohol)
- Residual drowsiness and daytime sedation

39

Hypnotic benzodiazepines can cause

A dose-dependent decrease in both REM and slow wave sleep

40

Which hypnotic benzodiazepines is more likely to cause rebound insomnia?

Triazolam

41

Which hypnotic benzodiazepines is more likely to cause “hangover” effects such as drowsiness, dysphoria, and mental or motor depression the following day?

Flurazepam

42

Indicate the hypnotic drug, which binds selectively to the BZ1 receptor subtype, facilitating GABAergic inhibition

Zolpidem

43

Which statements is correct for zolpidem?

- Causes minor effects on sleep patterns
- The risk of development of tolerance and dependence is less than with the use of hypnotic benzodiazepines
- Has minimal muscle relaxing and anticonvulsant effects

44

Which agent exerts hypnotic activity with minimal muscle relaxing and anticonvulsant effects?

Zaleplon

45

True or False. Zolpidem and zaleplon have effectiveness similar to that of hypnotic benzodiazepines in the management of sleep disorders.

TRUE

46

Which hypnotic drugs is used intravenously as anesthesia?

Thiopental

47

Indicate the usual cause of death due to overdose of hypnotics

Depression of the medullar respiratory center

48

Toxic doses of hypnotics may cause a circulatory collapse as a result of

Action on the medullar vasomotor center

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