Flashcards in AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Hypnotic drugs Deck (48):
Hypnotic drugs are used to treat
Hypnotic drugs should
Produce drowsiness, encourage the onset and maintenance of sleep
Which chemical agents are used in the treatment of insomnia?
Select a hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative
Tick a hypnotic agent – a barbituric acid derivative
Select a hypnotic drug, which is an imidazopyridine derivative
Which hypnotic agents is absorbed slowly?
Which barbiturates is an ultra-short-acting drug?
Indicate the barbituric acid derivative, which has 4-5 days elimination half-life
Indicate the hypnotic benzodiazepine, which has the shortest elimination half-life
Which hypnotic drugs is more likely to cause cumulative and residual effects?
Which hypnotic drugs increases the activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme systems?
Hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme induction leads to
True or False. Hypnotic benzodiazepines are more powerful enzyme inducers than barbiturates.
Indicate the hypnotic drug, which does not change hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity?
Barbiturates increase the rate of metabolism of
- Digitalis compounds
Which agents inhibits hepatic metabolism of hypnotics?
Which factors can influence the biodisposition of hypnotic agents?
- Alterations in the hepatic function resulting from a disease
- Old age
- Drug-induced increases or decreases in microsomal enzyme activities
Which hypnotics is preferred for elderly patients?
Which hypnotics is preferred in patients with limited hepatic function?
Indicate the mechanism of barbiturate action (at hypnotic doses)
Increasing the duration of the GABA-gated Cl- channel openings
Selective agonists of the BZ1 (omega1) subtype of BZ receptors
Which hypnotic agents is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptor function?
Indicate a hypnotic drug - a selective agonist at the BZ1 receptor subtype
Which hypnotic agents is able to interact with both BZ1 and BZ2 receptor subtypes?
Indicate the competitive antagonist of BZ receptors
Flumazenil blocks the actions of
Indicate the agent, which interferes with GABA binding
Which agents blocks the chloride channel directly?
Which agents is preferred in the treatment of insomnia?
Barbiturates are being replaced by hypnotic benzodiazepines because of
- Low therapeutic index
- Suppression in REM sleep
- High potential of physical dependence and abuse
Which benzodiazepines is used mainly for hypnosis?
Indicate the main claim for an ideal hypnotic agent
- Rapid onset and sufficient duration of action
- Minor effects on sleep patterns
- Minimal “hangover” effects
Which stage of sleep is responsible for the incidence of dreams?
During slow wave sleep (stage 3 and 4 NREM sleep)
Somnambulism and nightmares occur
All of the hypnotic drugs induce
Decrease the duration of REM sleep
Which hypnotic drugs causes least suppression of REM sleep?
Although the benzodiazepines continue to be the agents of choice for insomnia, they have
- The possibility of psychological and physiological dependence
- Synergistic depression of CNS with other drugs (especially alcohol)
- Residual drowsiness and daytime sedation
Hypnotic benzodiazepines can cause
A dose-dependent decrease in both REM and slow wave sleep
Which hypnotic benzodiazepines is more likely to cause rebound insomnia?
Which hypnotic benzodiazepines is more likely to cause “hangover” effects such as drowsiness, dysphoria, and mental or motor depression the following day?
Indicate the hypnotic drug, which binds selectively to the BZ1 receptor subtype, facilitating GABAergic inhibition
Which statements is correct for zolpidem?
- Causes minor effects on sleep patterns
- The risk of development of tolerance and dependence is less than with the use of hypnotic benzodiazepines
- Has minimal muscle relaxing and anticonvulsant effects
Which agent exerts hypnotic activity with minimal muscle relaxing and anticonvulsant effects?
True or False. Zolpidem and zaleplon have effectiveness similar to that of hypnotic benzodiazepines in the management of sleep disorders.
Which hypnotic drugs is used intravenously as anesthesia?
Indicate the usual cause of death due to overdose of hypnotics
Depression of the medullar respiratory center