AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Antiparkinsonian agents Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Antiparkinsonian agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Antiparkinsonian agents Deck (33):
1

Which neurons are involved in parkinsonism?

- Cholinergic neurons
- GABAergic neurons
- Dopaminergic neurons

2

The pathophysiologic basis for antiparkinsonism therapy is

A selective loss of dopaminergic neurons

3

Which neurotransmitters is involved in Parkinson′s disease?

- Acetylcholine
- Glutamate
- Dopamine

4

True or False. The concentration of dopamine in the basal ganglia of the brain is reduced in parkinsonism.

TRUE

5

Principal aim for treatment of Parkinsonian disorders is

- To restore the normal balance of cholinergic and dopaminergic influences on the basal ganglia with antimuscarinic drugs
- To restore dopaminergic activity with levodopa and dopamine agonists
- To decrease glutamatergic activity with glutamate antagonists

6

Indicate the drug that induces parkinsonian syndromes

Chlorpromazine

7

Which drugs is used in the treatment of Parkinsonian disorders

Selegiline

8

Select the agent, which is preferred in the treatment of the drug-induced form of parkinsonism

Benztropine

9

Which agents is the precursor of dopamine?

Levodopa

10

The main reason for giving levodopa, the precursor of dopamine, instead of dopamine is

Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier

11

Indicate a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor

Carbidopa

12

The mechanism of carbidopa′s action is

Inhibition of dopa decarboxilase

13

True or False. Carbidopa is unable to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it acts to reduce the peripheral conversion of levodopa to dopamine.

TRUE

14

When carbidopa and levodopa are given concomitantly

- Levodopa blood levels are increased, and drug half-life is lengthened
- The dose of levodopa can be significantly reduced (by 75%), also reducing toxic side effects
- A shorter latency period precedes the occurrence of beneficial effects

15

Which preparations combines carbidopa and levodopa in a fixed proportion?

Sinemet

16

Which statements is correct for levodopa?

- Tolerance to both beneficial and adverse effects develops gradually
- Levodopa is most effective in the first 2-5 years of treatment
- After 5 years of therapy, patients have dose-related dyskinesias, inadequate response or toxicity

17

Gastrointestinal irritation, cardiovascular effects, including tachycardia, arrhythmias, and orthostatic hypotension, mental disturbances, and withdrawal are possible adverse effects of

Levodopa

18

Which agents is the most helpful in counteracting the behavioral complications of levodopa?

Clozapine

19

Which vitamins reduces the beneficial effects of levodopa by enhancing its extracerebral metabolism?

Pyridoxine

20

Which drugs antagonizes the effects of levodopa because it leads to a junctional blockade of dopamine action?

- Reserpine
- Haloperidol
- Chlorpromazine

21

Levodopa should not be given to patients taking

Monoamine oxydase A inhibitors

22

Indicate D2 receptor agonist with antiparkinsonian activity

Bromocriptine

23

Which antiparkinsonian drugs has also been used to treat hyperprolactinemia?

Bromocriptine

24

Indicate a selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B

Selegiline

25

True or False. MAO-A metabolizes norepinephrine and serotonin; MAO-B metabolizes dopamine

TRUE

26

True or False. Treatment with selegilin postpones the need for levodopa for 3-9 months and may retard the progression of Parkinson′s disease.

TRUE

27

The main reason for avoiding the combined administration of levodopa and an inhibitor of both forms of monoamine oxidase is

Hypertensive emergency

28

Indicate selective catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, which prolongs the action of levodopa by diminishing its peripheral metabolism

Tolcapone

29

Which antiparkinsonian drugs is an antiviral agent used in the prophylaxis of influenza A2?

Amantadine

30

The mechanism of amantadine action is

Stimulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission

31

Which antiparkinsonism drugs is an anticholinergic agent?

Trihexyphenidyl

32

Mental confusion and hallucinations, peripheral atropine like toxicity (e.g. Cycloplegia, tachycardia, urinary retention, and constipation) are possible adverse effects of

Benztropine

33

Indicate the antiparkinsonism drug which should be avoided in patients with glaucoma

Trihexyphenidyl

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