AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Local anesthetics Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Local anesthetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Local anesthetics Deck (56):
1

Local anesthetics produce

Blocking pain sensation without loss of consciousness

2

A good local anesthetic agent shouldn’t cause

Fast onset and long duration of action

3

Most local anesthetic agents consist of

- Lipophylic group (frequently an aromatic ring)
- Intermediate chain (commonly including an ester or amide)
- Amino group

4

Which one of the following groups is responsible for the duration of the local anesthetic action?

Intermediate chain

5

Indicate the local anesthetic agent, which has a shorter duration of action

Procaine

6

Which one of the following groups is responsible for the potency and the toxicity of local anesthetics?

Lipophylic group

7

Indicate the drug, which has greater potency of the local anesthetic action

Bupivacaine

8

Ionizable group is responsible for

The ability to diffuse to the site of action

9

Which one of the following local anesthetics is an ester of benzoic acid?

Cocaine

10

Indicate the local anesthetic, which is an ester of paraaminobenzoic acid

Procaine

11

Which of the following local anesthetics is an acetanilide derivative?

Lidocaine

12

Indicate the local anesthetic, which is a toluidine derivative

Prilocaine

13

Which of the following local anesthetics is a thiophene derivative?

Ultracaine

14

Local anesthetics are

Weak bases

15

For therapeutic application local anesthetics are usually made available as salts for the reasons of

More stability and greater water solubility

16

Which of the following statements is not correct for local anesthetics?

charged cationic form penetrates biologic membranes more readily than an uncharged form

17

Which of the following statements is correct for local anesthetics?

- In a tissue they exist either as an uncharged base or as a cation
- Local anesthetics are much less effective in inflamed tissues
- Low ph in inflamed tissues decreases the dissociation of nonionized molecules

18

Which one of the following statements about the metabolism of local anesthetics is incorrect?

Metabolism of local anesthetics occurs at the site of administration

19

Which one of the following statements about the metabolism of local anesthetics is correct?

- Metabolism occurs in the plasma or liver but not at the site of administration
- Ester group of anesthetics like procaine, are metabolized systemically by pseudocholinesterase
- Amides such as lidocaine, are metabolized in the liver by microsomal mixed function oxidases

20

Indicate the anesthetic agent of choice in patient with a liver disease

Procaine

21

Which of the following local anesthetics is preferable in patient with pseudocholinesterase deficiency?

Ropivacaine

22

The primary mechanism of action of local anesthetics is

Blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels

23

A local anesthetics that is water-soluble

Procaine

24

Indicate the local anesthetic, which is more lipid-soluble

Bupivacaine

25

The more lipophylic drugs

- Are more potent
- Have longer duration of action
- Bind more extensively to proteins

26

Which fibers is the first to be blocked?

B and C fibers

27

The function, which the last to be blocked:

Motor function

28

Which of the following fibers participates in high-frequency pain transmission?

Type A delta and C fibers

29

Local anesthetics that is an useful antiarrhythmic agent?

Lidocaine

30

Indicate the route of local anesthetic administration, which is associated with instillation within epidural or subarachnoid spaces

Spinal anesthesia

31

The choice of a local anesthetic for specific procedures is usually based on

- The duration of action
- Water solubility
- Capability of rapid penetration through the skin or mucosa with limited tendency to diffuse away from the site of application

32

What anesthetics has a short-acting drug?

Procaine

33

Indicate the local anesthetic, which is a long-acting agent

Bupivacaine

34

The anesthetic effect of the agents of short and intermediate duration of action can not be prolonged by adding

Dopamine

35

A vasoconstrictor does not

Reduce a local anesthetic uptake by the nerve

36

A vasoconstrictor does

- Retard the removal of drug from the injection site
- Hence the chance of toxicity
- Decrease the blood level

37

Vasoconstrictors are less effective in prolonging anesthetic properties of

Bupivacaine

38

Which of the following local anesthetics is only used for surface or topical anesthesia?

Cocaine

39

Indicate the local anesthetic, which is mainly used for regional nerve block anesthesia

Bupivacaine

40

Which local anesthetics is used for infiltrative and regional anesthesia?

- Procaine
- Lidocaine
- Mepivacaine

41

Indicate the local anesthetic, which is used for spinal anesthesia

Tetracaine

42

Which local anesthetics is called a universal anesthetic?

Lidocaine

43

Most serious toxic reaction to local anesthetics is

- Seizures
- Cardiovascular collapse
- Respiratory failure

44

Correct statements concerning cocaine include

- Cocaine is often used for nose and throat procedures
- Limited use because of abuse potential
- Causes sympathetically mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction

45

Which local anesthetics is more cardiotoxic?

Bupivacaine

46

Most local anesthetics can cause

- Depression of abnormal cardiac pacemaker activity, excitability, conduction
- Depression of the strength of cardiac contraction
- Cardiovascular collapse

47

Which local anesthetics causes methemoglobinemia?

Prilocaine

48

Procaine has all of the following propertie

- It has ester linkage
- Its metabolic product can inhibit the action of sulfonamides
- It is relatively short-acting

49

Procaine has all of the following properties EXCEPT

It readily penetrates the skin and mucosa

50

Correct statements concerning lidocaine include

- It is an universal anesthetic
- It widely used as an antiarrhythmic agent
- It is metabolized in liver

51

Correct statements concerning lidocaine include all of the following EXCEPT

It has esteratic linkage

52

Which local anesthetics is more likely to cause allergic reactions?

Procaine

53

Tetracaine has all of the following properties

- Slow onset
- Long duration
- High toxicity

54

Tetracaine has all of the following properties EXCEPT

Low potency

55

Correct statements concerning bupivacaine include

- It has amide linkage
- It is a long-acting drug
- An intravenous injection can lead to seizures

56

Correct statements concerning bupivacaine include all of the following EXCEPT

It has low cardiotoxicity

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