AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Cholinoreceptor blocking drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Cholinoreceptor blocking drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Cholinoreceptor blocking drugs Deck (78):
1

The group of nicotinic receptor-blocking drugs consists of

- Ganglion-blockers
- Neuromuscular junction blockers

2

M3 receptor subtype is located

On effector cell membranes of glandular and smooth muscle cells

3

Which drugs is both a muscarinic and nicotinic blocker?

Benztropine

4

Indicate a muscarinic receptor-blocking drug

Scopolamine

5

Which agents is a ganglion-blocking drug?

Hexamethonium

6

Indicate the skeletal muscle relaxant, which is a depolarizing agent

Succinylcholine

7

Which drugs is a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant?

Pancuronium

8

Indicate the drug, which is rapidly and fully distributed into CNS and has a greater effect than most other antimuscarinic agents?

Scopolamine

9

The effect of the drug on parasympathetic function declines rapidly in

- Heart
- Smooth muscle organs
- Glands

10

The effect of the drug on parasympathetic function declines rapidly in all organs EXCEPT

Eye

11

The mechanism of atropine action is

Competitive muscarinic blockade

12

The tissues most sensitive to atropine are

The salivary, bronchial and sweat glands

13

Atropine is highly selective for

- M1 receptor subtype
- M2 receptor subtype
- M3 receptor subtype

14

Which antimuscarinic drugs is often effective in preventing or reversing vestibular disturbances, especially motion sickness?

Scopolamine

15

Atropine causes

Mydriasis, a rise in intraocular pressure and cyclo

16

Patients complain of dry or “sandy” eyes when receiving large doses of

Atropine

17

All of the following parts of the heart are very sensitive to muscarinic receptor blockade

- Atria
- Sinoatrial node
- Atrioventricular node

18

All of the following parts of the heart are very sensitive to muscarinic receptor blockade except:

Ventricle

19

Atropine causes

Tachycardia, little effect on blood pressure and bronchodilation

20

Atropine is frequently used prior to administration of inhalant anesthetics to reduce

Secretions

21

Atropine is now rarely used for the treatment of peptic ulcer because of

- Slow gastric empting and prolongation of the exposure of the ulcer bed to acid
- Low efficiency and necessity of large doses
- Adverse effects

22

Which antimuscarinic drugs is a selective M1 blocker?

Pirenzepine

23

Atropine causes

Spasmolitic activity

24

Which drugs is useful in the treatment of uterine spasms?

Atropine

25

Atropine may cause a rise in body temperature (atropine fever)

In infants and children

26

The pharmacologic actions of scopolamine most closely resemble those of

Atropine

27

Compared with atropine, scopolamine has all of the following properties

- More marked central effect
- More potent in producing mydriasis and cycloplegia
- Lower effects on the heart, bronchial muscle and intestines

28

Compared with atropine, scopolamine has all of the following properties EXCEPT

Less potent in decreasing bronchial, salivary and sweat gland secretion

29

Which drugs is useful in the treatment of Parkinson′s disease?

Benztropine

30

Indicate the antimuscarinic drug, which is used as a mydriatic

Homatropine

31

Which agents is used as an inhalation drug in asthma?

Ipratropium

32

Which agents is most effective in regenerating cholinesterase associated with skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions?

Pralidoxime

33

Indicate an antimuscarinic drug, which is effective in the treatment of mushroom poising

Atropine

34

Antimuscarinics are used in the treatment of

- Motion sickness
- Hyperhidrosis
- Asthma

35

Antimuscarinics are used in the treatment of the following disorders EXCEPT

Glaucoma

36

The atropine poisoning includes all of the following symptoms EXCEPT

Bradicardia, orthostatic hypotension

37

The atropine poisoning includes all of the following symptoms

- Mydriasis, cycloplegia
- Hyperthermia, dry mouth, hot and flushed skin
- Agitation and delirium

38

The treatment of the antimuscarinic effects can be carried out with

Neostigmine

39

Contraindications to the use of antimuscarinic drugs are

- Glaucoma
- Myasthenia
- Paralytic ileus and atony of the urinary bladder

40

Contraindications to the use of antimuscarinic drugs are all of the following except

Bronchial asthma

41

Hexamethonium blocks the action of acethylcholine and similar agonists at

Autonomic ganglia

42

The applications of the ganglion blockers have disappeared because of all of the following reasons EXCEPT

Respiratory depression

43

The applications of the ganglion blockers have disappeared because of all of the following reasons

- Orthostatic hypotension
- Lack of selectivity
- Homeostatic reflexes block

44

Which agents is a short-acting ganglion blocker?

Trimethaphane

45

Indicate the ganglion-blocking drug, which can be taken orally for the treatment of hypertension?

Mecamylamine

46

The systemic effects of hexamethonium include

- Reduction of both peripheral vascular resistance and venous return
- Partial mydriasis and loss of accommodation
- Constipation and urinary retention

47

The systemic effects of hexamethonium include all of the following EXCEPT

Stimulation of thermoregulatory sweating

48

Ganglion blocking drugs are used for the following emergencies

- Hypertensive crises
- Controlled hypotension
- Pulmonary edema

49

Ganglion blocking drugs are used for the following emergencies EXCEPT

Cardiovascular collapse

50

Agents that produce neuromuscular blockade act by inhibiting:

Interaction of acetylcholine with cholinergic receptors

51

Skeletal muscle relaxation and paralysis can occur from interruption of functions at several sites, including

- Nicotinic acethylcholine receptors
- The motor end plate
- Contractile apparatus

52

Skeletal muscle relaxation and paralysis can occur from interruption of functions at several sites, including all of the following EXCEPT

Muscarinic acethylcholine receptors

53

Nondepolarisation neuromuscular blocking agents

Prevent access of the transmitter to its receptor and depolarization

54

Which drugs has “double-acetylcholine” structure?

Succylcholine

55

Indicate the long-acting neuromuscular blocking agent

Tubocurarine

56

Which neuromuscular blocking drugs is an intermediate-duration muscle relaxant?

Vecuronium

57

Indicate the nondepolarizing agent, which has the fastest onset of effect?

Rapacuronium

58

Indicate the neuromuscular blocker, whose breakdown product readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and may cause seizures

Atracurium

59

Which competitive neuromuscular blocking agent could be used in patients with renal failure?

Atracurium

60

Indicate the nondepolarizing agent, which has short duration of action

Mivacurium

61

Which depolarizing agent has the extremely brief duration of action?

Succinylcholine

62

Neuromuscular blockade by both succinylcholine and mivacurium may be prolonged in patients wit

- An abnormal variant of plasma cholinesterase
- Hepatic disease

63

Depolarizing agents include

- React with the nicotinic receptor to open the channel and cause depolarisation of the end plate
- Cause desensitization, noncompetive block manifested by flaccid paralysis
- Cholinesterase inhibitors do not have the ability to reverse the blockade

64

Depolarizing agents include all of the following properties EXCEPT

Interact with nicotinic receptor to compete with acetylcholine without receptor activation

65

Which neuromuscular blockers causes transient muscle fasciculations?

Succinylcholine

66

Indicate muscles, which are more resistant to block and recover more rapidly

Diaphragm

67

Which neuromuscular blocking agent has the potential to cause the greatest release of histamine?

Tubocurarine

68

Which of the following muscular relaxants causes hypotension and bronchospasm?

Tubocurarine

69

Indicate the neuromuscular blocker, which causes tachycardia

Pancuronium

70

Which neuromuscular blocking agents cause cardiac arrhythmias?

Succinylcholine

71

Effects seen only with depolarizing blockade include

- Hypercaliemia
- Emesis
- Muscle pain

72

Effects seen only with depolarizing blockade include all of the following EXCEPT

A decrease in intraocular pressure

73

Which neuromuscular blocking agent is contraindicated in patients with glaucoma?

Succinylcholine

74

Indicate the following neuromuscular blocker, which would be contraindicated in patients with renal failure

Pipecuronium

75

All of the following drugs increase the effects of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents EXCEPT

Nondepolarizing blockers

76

Drugs that increase the effects of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents

- Aminoglycosides
- Antiarrhythmic drugs
- Local anesthetics

77

Which diseases can augment the neuromuscular blockade produced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants?

Myasthenia gravis

78

Indicate the agent, which effectively antagonizes the neuromuscular blockade caused by nondepolarizing drugs

Neostigmine

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