AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Adrenoreceptor activating drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Adrenoreceptor activating drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in AGENTS, CONTROLLING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Adrenoreceptor activating drugs Deck (92):
1

Sympathetic stimulation is mediated by

- Release of norepinephrine from nerve terminals
- Activation of adrenoreceptors on postsynaptic sites
- Release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla

2

Characteristics of epinephrine include

- It is synthesized into the adrenal medulla
- It is transported in the blood to target tissues
- It directly interacts with and activates adrenoreceptors

3

Characteristics of epinephrine include all of the following EXCEPT

It is synthesized into the nerve ending

4

Which of the following sympathomimetics acts indirectly?

Ephedrine

5

Indirect action includes all of the following properties

- Displacement of stored catecholamines from the adrenergic nerve ending
- Inhibition of reuptake of catecholamines already released
- Inhibition of the release of endogenous catecholamines from peripheral adrenergic neurons

6

Indirect action includes all of the following properties EXCEPT

Interaction with adrenoreceptors

7

Catecholamine includes

- Epinephrine
- Isoprenaline
- Norepinephrine

8

Epinephrine decreases intracellular camp levels by acting on

α2 receptor

9

True or False. Skeletal muscle vessels have predominantly alfa receptors and constrict in the presence of epinephrine and norepinephrine

FALSE

10

True or False. ALFA receptors increase arterial resistence, whereas beta2 receptor promote smooth muscle relaxation

TRUE

11

True or False. The skin and splanchic vessels have predominantly alfa receptors.

TRUE

12

True or False. Vessels in a skeletal muscle may constrict or dilate depending on whether alfa or beta2 receptors are activated

TRUE

13

Direct effects on the heart are determined largely by

Beta1 receptor

14

Which of the following effects is related to direct beta1 adrenoreceptor stimulation?

Tachycardia

15

Distribution of alfa adrenoreceptor subtypes is associated with all of the following tissues

- Blood vessels
- Prostate
- Pupillary dilator muscle

16

Distribution of alfa adrenoreceptor subtypes is not associated with the tissues of

HEART

17

Beta adrenoreceptor subtypes is not contained in tissues of

Pupillary dilator muscle

18

Beta adrenoreceptor subtypes is contained in

- Bronchial muscles
- Heart
- Fat cells

19

In which tissues both alfa and beta1 adrenergic stimulation produces the same effect?

Intestine

20

The effects of sympathomimetics on blood pressure are associated with their effects on

- The heart
- The peripheral resistance
- The venous return

21

A relatively pure alfa agonist causes

- Increase peripheral arterial resistance
- Increase venous return
- Reflex bradycardia

22

A relatively pure alfa agonist do not causes

Effect on blood vessels

23

A nonselective beta receptor agonist causes

- Increase cardiac output
- Decrease peripheral arterial resistance
- Decrease the mean pressure

24

A nonselective beta receptor agonist do not causes

Increase peripheral arterial resistance

25

True or False. Αlfa agonists cause miosis.

FALSE

26

True or False. Αlfa agonists cause mydriasis.

TRUE

27

True or False. Beta antagonists decrease the production of aqueous humor

TRUE

28

True or False. Αlfa agonists increase the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye

TRUE

29

A bronchial smooth muscle contains

Beta 2 receptor

30

All of the following agents are beta receptor agonists

- Epinephrine
- Isoproterenol
- Dobutamine

31

All of the following agents are beta receptor agonists EXCEPT

Methoxamine

32

Which of the following drugs causes bronchodilation without significant cardiac stimulation?

Terbutaline

33

Αlfa-receptor stimulation includes

- Relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle
- Contraction of bladder base, uterus and prostate
- Stimulation of platelet aggregation

34

Αlfa-receptor stimulation do not includes

Stimulation of insulin secretion

35

Beta1 receptor stimulation includes

- Increase in contractility
- Tachycardia
- Increase in conduction velocity in the atrioventricular node

36

Beta1 receptor stimulation do not includes

Bronchodilation

37

Beta2 receptor stimulation includes

- Stimulation of renin secretion
- Fall of potassium concentration in plasma
- Relaxation of bladder, uterus

38

Beta2 receptor stimulation do not includes

Tachycardia

39

Hyperglycemia induced by epinephrine is due to

- Gluconeogenesis (beta2)
- Inhibition of insulin secretion (alfa)
- Stimulation of glycogenolysis (beta2)

40

Which of the following effects is associated with beta3-receptor stimulation?

Lipolysis

41

True or False. Norepinephrine has a predominantly beta action

FALSE

42

True or False. Epinephrine acts on both alfa- and beta-receptors

TRUE

43

True or False. Methoxamine has a predominantly alfa action

TRUE

44

True or False. Isoprenaline has a predominantly beta action

TRUE

45

Indicate the drug, which is a direct-acting both alfa- and beta-receptor agonist

Norepinephrine

46

Which of the following agents is an alfa1 alfa2 beta1 beta2 receptor agonist?

Epinephrine

47

Indicate the direct-acting sympathomimetic, which is an alfa1 alfa2 beta1 receptor agonist

Norepinephrine

48

Which of the following agents is an alfa1-selective agonist?

Methoxamine

49

Indicate the alfa2-selective agonist

Xylometazoline

50

Which agents is a nonselective beta receptor agonist?

Isoproterenol

51

Indicate the beta1-selective agonist

Dobutamine

52

Which sympathomimetics is a beta2-selective agonist?

Terbutaline

53

Indicate the indirect-acting sympathomimetic agent

Ephedrine

54

Epinephrine produces all of the following effects

- Positive inotropic and chronotropic actions on the heart (beta1 receptor)
- Increase peripheral resistance (alfa receptor)
- Skeletal muscle blood vessel dilatation (beta2 receptor)

55

Epinephrine produces all of the following effects EXCEPT

Predominance of alfa effects at low concentration

56

Epinephrine produces all of the following effects

- Bronchodilation
- Hyperglycemia
- Mydriasis

57

Epinephrine produces all of the following effects EXCEPT

Decrease in oxygen consumption

58

Epinephrine is used in the treatment of

- Bronchospasm
- Anaphylactic shock
- Open-angle glaucoma

59

Epinephrine is not used in the treatment of

Cardiac arrhythmias

60

Compared with epinephrine, norepinephrine produces

- Similar effects on beta1 receptors in the heart and similar potency at an alfa receptor
- Significant tissue necrosis if injected subcutaneously
- Increase both diastolic and systolic blood pressure

61

Compared with epinephrine, norepinephrine do not produces

Decrease the mean pressure below normal before returning to the control value

62

Norepinephrine produces

Vasoconstriction

63

Which direct-acting drugs is a relatively pure alfa agonist, an effective mydriatic and decongestant and can be used to raise blood pressure?

Phenylephrine

64

Characteristics of methoxamine include

- It is a direct-acting alfa1-receptor agonist
- It causes reflex bradycardia
- It increases total peripheral resistance

65

Characteristics of methoxamine do not

It increases heart rate, contractility and cardiac output

66

Which agents is an alfa2-selective agonist with ability to promote constriction of the nasal mucosa?

Xylometazoline

67

Indicate the sympathomimetic, which may cause hypotension, presumably because of a clonidine-like effect

Xylometazoline

68

Isoproterenol is

Nonselective beta receptor agonist

69

Isoproterenol produces

- Increase in cardiac output
- Fall in diastolic and mean arterial pressure
- Tachycardia

70

Isoproterenol do not produces

Bronchoconstriction

71

Characteristics of dobutamine is not

It is used to treat bronchospasm

72

Characteristics of dobutamine include

- It is a relatively beta1-selective synthetic catecholamine
- It increases atrioventricular conduction
- It causes minimal changes in heart rate and systolic pressure

73

Characteristics of salmeterol include

- It is a potent selective beta2 agonist
- It causes uterine relaxation
- It is used in the therapy of asthma

74

Characteristics of salmeterol do not include

It stimulates heart rate, contractility and cardiac output

75

Characteristics of ephedrine include

- It acts primarily through the release of stored cathecholamines
- It is a mild CNS stimulant
- It causes tachyphylaxis with repeated administration

76

Characteristics of ephedrine do not include

It decreases arterial pressure

77

Ephedrine causes

Bronchodilation

78

Compared with epinephrine, ephedrine produces

- It has oral activity
- It is resistant to MAO and has much longer duration of action
- Its effects are similar, but it is less potent

79

Compared with epinephrine, ephedrine do not produces

It is a direct-acting sympathomimetic

80

Which sympathomimetics is preferable for the treatment of chronic orthostatic hypotension?

Ephedrine

81

Indicate the sympathomimetic drug, which is used in a hypotensive emergency

Phenylephrine

82

Which sympathomimetics is preferable for the emergency therapy of cardiogenic shock?

Dobutamine

83

Indicate the sympathomimetic agent, which is combined with a local anesthetic to prolong the duration of infiltration nerve block

Epinephrine

84

Which sympathomimetics is related to short-acting topical decongestant agents?

Phenylephrine

85

Indicate the long-acting topical decongestant agents

Xylometazoline

86

Which topical decongestant agents is an alfa2-selective agonist?

Xylometazoline

87

Indicate the sympathomimetic, which may be useful in the emergency management of cardiac arrest

Epinephrine

88

Which sympathomimetics is used in the therapy of bronchial asthma?

Formoterol

89

Indicate the agent of choice in the emergency therapy of anaphylactic shock

Epinephrine

90

Which sympathomimetics is an effective mydriatic?

Phenylephrine

91

The adverse effects of sympathomimetics include

- Cerebral hemorrhage or pulmonary edema
- Myocardial infarction
- Ventricular arrhythmias

92

The adverse effects of sympathomimetics do not include

Drug-induced parkinsonism

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