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Flashcards in Aging Deck (133)
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1

2

Peak age of increased organ function (functional reserve).

Around 30

3

Age of gradual/rapid decline organ function (functional reserve).

80

4

Age process is highly variable. T/F

True

5

What further diminishes functional organ reserve.

Disease interaction

6

Sensory changes with age.

DECREASED

Salivation

Taste buds for sweat & salty

Visual acuity

Sensitivity to sound

Response to pain

Thirst sensation

Motor skills

General - changes in dentition

7

Renal changes with aging.

DECREASED

Renal capacity

Renal blood flow

Glomerulofiltration

Renal drug clearance and metabolism

8

CNS changes with aging

DECREASED

Neuronal density

Reflexes

Sympathetic response

Proprioception

Baroreceptor response (postural hypotension)

9

GI changes with aging

DECREASED

GI absorption

Gastric emptying

Hepatic BF / Drug clearance

Drug absorption

Motility

Transit time

10

Cardiovascular changes with aging (increases)

INCREASED

Myocardial irritability

Dysrhythmia

(PVC, PAC, inc AV Block, dec max HR, dec sinus rate) Systolic BP

Circulation time

Conduction changes

Defective ischemic preconditioning

11

Endocrine chaos gets with aging

High or low thyroid function

Dec insulin sensitivity

12

Ortho changer with aging

Osteopenia

High fracture risk

Dec ROM

Dec ligamentous stiffness

13

Immune changes in aging

  1. Dec neurohormonal response
  2. Dec WBC reserve (secondary to bone marrow splenic stenosis)
  3. Sluggish T-cell response

14

Aging: response to beta receptor stimulation

Reduced capacity to inc HR in response to low BP, hypovolemia, and hypoxia

15

Myocardium, arteries and veins become soft or stiffer?

Stiffer

16

Cariovascular

Aging changes in ANS

Cardiovascular

Increased SNS

decreased PNS

17

Rhythm disturbances

Fibrosis of conduction system (blocks)

Sick sinus syndrome

A fib prevalence

Calcification in valves

18

Ischemic preconditioning: brief periods of myocardial ischemia will LESSEN or INCREASE effects of subsequent, more prolonged ischemic event

Ischemic preconditioning: brief periods of myocardial ischemia will LESSEN effects of subsequent, more prolonged ischemic event

Diminished or eliminated with age

19

Manifestation of arterial stiffening due to

Widened pulse pressure

20

Pulse pressure > _________ mmHg is associated with 3 things

80

  1. All cause mortality
  2. Cardio mortality
  3. Variety of comorbidities

21

HTN risk for periop complications. Risk ____ for every ____mmHg in sbp and ___ mmHg in dbp

Doubles

20sbp

10 dbp

22

HTN caused by

Increased PVR, dec arterial elasticity and cardiac workload

23

Most common complication and leading cause of death

Myocardial infarction

24

Most prominent pulmonary changes with aging

Inc chest wall stiffness

Dec stiffness of lung parenchyma

25

Chest wall stiffening does what in aging

Increases work of breathing

More barrel shaped

Flattened diaphragm

26

What makes elderly more prone to fatigue when challenged by inc minute ventilation?

Stiff chest wall

Flattened diaphragm

Loss muscle mass make

27

What causes decreased lung stiffness

Loss of elastin

Easier to inflate (more compliance)

28

Dr. Thurman clarified there is decreased in CHEST WALL compliance and increase in LUNG compliance.

Adverse effects of increased LUNG compliance

 

  1. Need further lung inflation to prevent small airway collapse
  2. Inc VQ mismatch
  3. Greater limitation during forced exhalation
  4. Predisposition to upper AW Obstruction

29

Closing capacity is ______

CC is > or < FRC in erect position in 65 or older

Increased

CC > FRC at 65

30

VQ change with inc compliance

Increased VQ