Flashcards in AIP Deck (67):
NVFR Alternate minima
VFR alternate minima
IFR alternate minima
AD with IAP = as published
AD with IAP but no or provisional TAF = alternate required
AD without IAP = final route LSALT + 500’, vis 8000m
VMC Class G
Below 10,000ft = 1000ft vert, 1500m hori + 5000m vis
By day only
At or below higher of 3000ft AMSL or 1000ft AGL = clr of cld, in sight of gnd/water + 5000m vis
Below 700ft AGL = clr cld + 800m vis
By day only
Clr of cld
Vis not less than 800m
VFR flight can be conducted:
a. in VMC
b. when at/blw 2000ft AGL, can nav visually
c. sub sonic
d. IAW ENR 1.4 speed limits
Visual approach by day requirements
within 30nm of AD, and
1. clear of cloud
2. In sight of gnd/water
3. Vis 5000m, helicopter VMC, or AD in sight
4. Maintaining the abv,
- maintain min VFR altitude till circling area, or for helicopters
- maintain helicopter VMC till HLS
Visual approach requirements by ngt
- clr of cloud
- in sight of gnd or water
- vis 5000m, and
- est within circling area
- within 5nm of AD, on centreline, not below papi (7mm if ILS)
- within 10nm of AD, est not below ILS GP and azimuth less that full scale
The met forecasts required prior to flight to a dest with IAP are
a. TAF for dest AD + TAF for alt AD if req’d, and
b. a flight forecast or GAF, and
c. a wind and temp forecast
The met forecasts req’d prior to flight to an AD without IAP are
A VFR flight at night, operating under AWK, must not be conducted unless the forecast indicates ...
...the flight can be conducted in VMC, at/abv 1000’ abv obstacles within 10nm either side of track.
What is TAF validity for a flight?
AD and alt AD TAF valid for planned ETA -30mins / +60mins
Requirements to fly IFR at night to an AD without IAP
a. alt fuel carried
b. able to nav to AD and Alt using area nav, radio nav or visual ref by day
c. No descent below LSALT until
1- positive fix within 3nm of AD
2- AD lighting in sight
3- maintain VMC through out descent
4- remain within 3nm at all times blw LSALT
d. PIC aware of all one within 3nm of AD, and maintains obs clr as specified for circling 300ft
On approach to an AD, descent below LSALT/ MSA is only to occur when..
a. c/o visual approach
b. DME/GPS arrival
c. ATC clearance
d. cross over IAF or facility
Visual circling within no-circling areas is prohibited by..
.. day less than VMC or at night
What is the basic assumption of a circling approach after initial visual contact?
That the rwy environment ( threshold, approach lights or identifiable markings with rwy) are kept in sight when circling at MDA
During visual circling, descent below MDA can occur when the pilot..
a. maintains AC within circling area
b. maintains vis along intended flight path not less than specified on chart
c. maintains vis contact with landing rwy environment
d. by day or night while complying with a/b/c, intercept a position on downwind, base or final from which a continuous descent can be made, maintaining normal RoD and OBS clearances, until aligned with landing rwy
e. by day only while complying with a/b/c, maintains visual contact with obs along intended flight path, not less than performance cat, until aligned with landing rwy
Minimum obstacle clearance requirements per category are..
Cat A & B = 300’
Cat C & D = 400’
Cat E = 500’
Circling area radii are..
Cat A = 1.68nm = 3,111m
Cat B = 2.66nm = 4,926m
Cat C = 4.20nm = 7,778m
Cat D = 5.28nm = 9,779m
Cat E = 6.94nm = 12,853m
Descent below straight-in MDA or below DA can only occur when..
a. vis ref can be maintained
b. met conditions equal/exceed published approach minima
c . AC is continuously in a position from which a landing in the touchdown zone can be achieved using normal RoD and manoeuvres
A missed approach must be executed if..
a. During final segment, AC is outside navigation tolerances for the aid in use
b. during app and below MSA, aid becomes suspect or fails
c. not visual at or before the MAPt or DA
d. Can not land off rwy approach, unless weather conditions allow for a circling approach
e. visual reference is lost whilst circling
Define “visual reference” for rwy and circling approaches.
Rwy approach - vis not less than specified
Circling approach - clear of cloud, in sight of ground/water and vis not less than specified
State the missed approach obs clr
100ft if missed approach commenced from MAPt or DA at 2.5% gradient (152ft/min)
Expectations when conducting a missed approach whilst circling.
Initiate a climb and turn towards the landing rwy and aerodrome IOT intercept the missed approach track
When does a loss of RAIM or RAIM warning result in a MAP?
Any time after IAF
Can you use GPS guidance if a RAIM warning ceases after a missed approach is initiated?
Yes, otherwise use DR to effect missed approach procedure
What are the CAT A handling speeds?
Vat = <91
IAF = 90-150 (max 110 for reversals)
FAF = 70-100
Circling = 100
Missed approach = 110
All DA’s must be adjusted to determine AD Operating
Minima (AOM). How is this done in a B412?
PEC = DA + 50’
Not required for non-precision approaches
Describe reversal procedures
45/180 = track outbound for published time, then turn away 45deg for 1 min from start of turn, reverse turn through 180 deg and intercept inbound track
80/260 = track outbound for published time. Turn away 80 deg then turn immediately opposite direction to intercept
Less than half scale deflection for the ILS, VOR and GNSS,
within +/- 5deg of required NDB bearing, or
within +/- 2nm of DME arc.
Procedures are based on what bank angle?
25deg or rate one
whichever is less
SID = 15deg
Name the four categories of approach procedures
PA - Precison approach (ILS)
APV - App procedure with Vertical guidance
NPA with - Non precision app with dist measuring (VOR/DME, LOC/DME, GNSS)
NPA without - non precision with dist measuring (NDB and VOR)
An aircraft may commence the approach without entering a hold (assuming no height need to be lost) if:
a. Received ATC clearance
b. completed: reversal, DME arc, or within 30deg of the app’s first track
c. GNSS: within capture region for an initial app waypoint, or receiving ATC vectors
Note: can request a ‘direct to’ intermediate fix (IF) provided the subs track change within 45deg
The standard holding direction and timing is
1 min (wind adjusted)
When does outbound timing commence during a hold?
Abeam the fix or on attaining the outbound heading, whichever comes later
Describe a sector 1 entry
Sector 1 - Parallel entry
Over fix, fly 15secs (20s if head wind) then turn to parallel track outbound allowing for drift.
Time starts over or abeam fix, whichever’s later
Continue until time or DME distance
Turn in to intercept inbound track
Describe sector 2 entry
Sector 2 - Tear drop
Over fix, turn onto the holding side to make good a 30deg offset of the inbound track
Fly out IAW time specified, up to 1:30mins or DME limit
Turn in to intercept inbound track
Describe sector 3 entry
Sector 3 - direct entry
Turn into the published holding pattern
Times start abeam, or on completion of the turn if the abeam post can’t be determined
Define the takeoff minima for the B412
a. Clear of cloud until Vyse or Vmin IMC, and
b. Vis 800m (550m*)
* edge lights spacing 60m or less, and centreline marking/lights
Vyse = best RoC IAS when OEI = 45kts
Vmin IMC = 60kts
If you use the IFR takeoff minima to get airborne, you must ensure that the take-off must be conducted
a. IAW published IFR departure or when not avail, that terrain clr is assured
b. If OEI in IMC, terrain clr is assured to MDA/LSALT, or
If you plan to land back at departure AD, met must be at/abv the app/ldg minima.
If a rtn to AD not possible, fuel and performance allow transit to suitable AD
State IFR landing minima at AD’s without IAP
Day - IAW vis app requirements
Ngt - VMC from LSALT with 3nm
Landing minima for AD’s with NPA’s
By day and night - as specified on plate
However - if HIAL installed but U/S, must add 900m to LOC app minima
Landing minima for AD’s with PA’s
As published except
a. vis 1.5km if HIAL u/s
b. min 1.2km vis required unless;
1- Autopilot coupled or FD in use
2- att and hdg failure systems serviceable
3- High intensity rwy edge lighting avail
State QNH sources and factors
a. Approved source* = -100ft (if shaded)
b. TAF = as published
c. Area forecast = +50ft (if shaded)
* (ATC,ATIS,AWIS, CASA met) (15mins)
Can the B412 use Special Alt minima?
When are these not available?
Fitted with dual LOC, G/P and VOR receivers, and
One marker receiver + DME
N/A = no METAR/SPECI forecasts or ATC
During a PA, the altimeter check indicates an unexplained discrepancy. State actions
If on slope but altimeter reads high, add difference to DA.
If on slope but altimeter reads low = good to go
Discrepancy bad = Discontinue the ILS, option to continue with LOC approach.
SID wind considerations under vectors vs tracks
Vectors = no allowance for wind
Tracks = wind allowance to make good
Light signals from tower in flight
Steady green = clr to land
Steady red = give way to others, continue circling
Green flashes = rtn for landing
Red flashes = do not land
White flashes = nil sig
Light signals from tower on ground
Steady green = clr to take-off
Steady red = stop
Green flashes = clr to taxi
Red flashes = taxi clr of active landing area
White flashes = rtn to base
Ground signals to aircraft
Dumb bells = stick to hard surfaces
Cross near wind sock = AD u/s
Cross near an area = area marked u/s
Double cross = gliding ops in progress
Rated coverages of
VOR and DME
NDB = ERSA
Below 5000’ = 60nm
5000 - 10000 = 90nm
Tracking requirements for visual approach
Track as cleared until
By day, within 5nm
By night, IFR within circling area / VFR within 3nm
Then join cct as directed
Standard circuit direction
IFR taxi report
IFR , MEDIVAC, Bell 412
Taxiing pt Lincoln for Adelaide
When must an IFR flight establish itself on track after departing an AD?
As soon as practicable but within 5nm
What weather conditions cause the requirement to provide for an alternate AD
a. Cloud > SCT below alt min
b. Vis < alt min
c. Vis > alt min but forecast includes a probability of vis < alt min
d. Wind > aircraft limits
Does a 30min buffer have to be applied to a TTF?
When is a Alternate aerodrome required when considering Radio Nav aids operating in IFR AWK category?
What other option exists by day?
Alt required unless,
Dest AD has 1x nav aid with IAP and aircraft equipped to use the nav aid
By day only,
No alt required if
a. cloud < SCT below LSALT +500’ and
b. Vis not less than 8000m
An alternate AD within 1hrs is required when operating under NVFR unless
a. Dest has a nav aid
b. Aircraft fitted with GNSS
When is an alternate AD required when considering rwy lighting?
Alternate required unless;
Portable + responsible person
Electric + Standby power
Electric + portable + responsible person
PAL + standby power + responsible person
An AD with PAL can be nominated as an alternate for non-RPT if aircraft equipped with
a. Dual VHF
b. Single VHF + HF + 30mins holding fuel
To avoid alternate lighting planning requirements, holding fuel can be carried for first light plus xx mins
First light plus 10mins
CTAF IFR taxi report
Traffic Pt Lincoln
IFR, MEDIVAC, BELL 412
Taxiing Pt Lincoln for adelaide
GNSS distance can be used in lieu of DME for IAP if...
1. The substitute DME reference is contained with GPS database
2. The substitute reference is annotated on approach chart
What is VMC by night in class G
1000’ vert and 1500m horizontal clr of cloud
Dist from threshold in meets to