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NVFR Alternate minima

Ceiling 1500’
Vis 8000m


VFR alternate minima

Ceiling 1000’
Vis 3000m


IFR alternate minima

AD with IAP = as published

AD with IAP but no or provisional TAF = alternate required

AD without IAP = final route LSALT + 500’, vis 8000m


VMC Class G

Below 10,000ft = 1000ft vert, 1500m hori + 5000m vis

By day only

At or below higher of 3000ft AMSL or 1000ft AGL = clr of cld, in sight of gnd/water + 5000m vis

Below 700ft AGL = clr cld + 800m vis


Special VFR

By day only

Clr of cld
Vis not less than 800m


VFR flight can be conducted:

a. in VMC

b. when at/blw 2000ft AGL, can nav visually

c. sub sonic

d. IAW ENR 1.4 speed limits


Visual approach by day requirements

within 30nm of AD, and

1. clear of cloud

2. In sight of gnd/water

3. Vis 5000m, helicopter VMC, or AD in sight

4. Maintaining the abv,
- maintain min VFR altitude till circling area, or for helicopters
- maintain helicopter VMC till HLS


Visual approach requirements by ngt

- clr of cloud

- in sight of gnd or water

- vis 5000m, and

- est within circling area

- within 5nm of AD, on centreline, not below papi (7mm if ILS)

- within 10nm of AD, est not below ILS GP and azimuth less that full scale


The met forecasts required prior to flight to a dest with IAP are

a. TAF for dest AD + TAF for alt AD if req’d, and

b. a flight forecast or GAF, and

c. a wind and temp forecast


The met forecasts req’d prior to flight to an AD without IAP are

GAF only


A VFR flight at night, operating under AWK, must not be conducted unless the forecast indicates ...

...the flight can be conducted in VMC, at/abv 1000’ abv obstacles within 10nm either side of track.


What is TAF validity for a flight?

AD and alt AD TAF valid for planned ETA -30mins / +60mins


Requirements to fly IFR at night to an AD without IAP

a. alt fuel carried

b. able to nav to AD and Alt using area nav or radio nav

c. No descent below LSALT until:

1- positive fix within 3nm of AD
2- AD lighting in sight
3- maintain VMC through out descent
4- remain within 3nm at all times blw LSALT

d. PIC aware of all one within 3nm of AD, and maintains obs clr as specified for circling 300ft


On approach to an AD, descent below LSALT/ MSA is only to occur when..

a. c/o visual approach

b. DME/GPS arrival

c. ATC clearance

d. cross over IAF or facility


Visual circling within no-circling areas is prohibited by..

.. day less than VMC or at night


What is the basic assumption of a circling approach after initial visual contact?

That the rwy environment ( threshold, approach lights or identifiable markings with rwy) are kept in sight when circling at MDA


During visual circling, descent below MDA can occur when the pilot..

a. maintains AC within circling area
b. maintains vis along intended flight path not less than specified on chart
c. maintains vis contact with landing rwy environment
d. by day or night while complying with a/b/c, intercept a position on downwind, base or final from which a continuous descent can be made, maintaining normal RoD and OBS clearances, until aligned with landing rwy
e. by day only while complying with a/b/c, maintains visual contact with obs along intended flight path, not less than performance cat, until aligned with landing rwy


Minimum obstacle clearance requirements per category are..

Cat A & B = 300’

Cat C & D = 400’

Cat E = 500’


Circling area radii are..

Cat A = 1.68nm = 3,111m

Cat B = 2.66nm = 4,926m

Cat C = 4.20nm = 7,778m

Cat D = 5.28nm = 9,779m

Cat E = 6.94nm = 12,853m


Descent below straight-in MDA or below DA can only occur when..

a. vis ref can be maintained

b. met conditions equal/exceed published approach minima

c . AC is continuously in a position from which a landing in the touchdown zone can be achieved using normal RoD and manoeuvres


A missed approach must be executed if..

a. During final segment, AC is outside navigation tolerances for the aid in use

b. during app and below MSA, aid becomes suspect or fails

c. not visual at or before the MAPt or DA

d. Can not land off rwy approach, unless weather conditions allow for a circling approach

e. visual reference is lost whilst circling


Define “visual reference” for rwy and circling approaches.

Rwy approach - vis not less than specified

Circling approach - clear of cloud, in sight of ground/water and vis not less than specified


State the missed approach obs clr

100ft if missed approach commenced from MAPt or DA at 2.5% gradient (152ft/min)


Expectations when conducting a missed approach whilst circling.

Initiate a climb and turn towards the landing rwy and aerodrome IOT intercept the missed approach track


When does a loss of RAIM or RAIM warning result in a MAP?

Any time after IAF


Can you use GPS guidance if a RAIM warning ceases after a missed approach is initiated?

Yes, otherwise use DR to effect missed approach procedure


What are the CAT A handling speeds?

Vat = <91

IAF = 90-150 (max 110 for reversals)

FAF = 70-100

Circling = 100

Missed approach = 110


All DA’s must be adjusted to determine AD Operating
Minima (AOM). How is this done in a B412?

PEC = DA + 50’

Not required for non-precision approaches


Describe reversal procedures

45/180 = track outbound for published time, then turn away 45deg for 1 min from start of turn, reverse turn through 180 deg and intercept inbound track

80/260 = track outbound for published time. Turn away 80 deg then turn immediately opposite direction to intercept


Define “established”

Less than half scale deflection for the ILS, VOR and GNSS,

within +/- 5deg of required NDB bearing, or

within +/- 2nm of DME arc.


Procedures are based on what bank angle?


25deg or rate one

whichever is less

SID = 15deg


Name the four categories of approach procedures

PA - Precison approach (ILS)

APV - App procedure with Vertical guidance

NPA with - Non precision app with dist measuring (VOR/DME, LOC/DME, GNSS)

NPA without - non precision without dist measuring (NDB and VOR)


An aircraft may commence the approach without entering a hold (assuming no height need to be lost) if:

a. Received ATC clearance

b. completed: reversal, DME arc, or within 30deg of the app’s first track

c. GNSS: within capture region for an initial app waypoint, or receiving ATC vectors

Note: can request a ‘direct to’ intermediate fix (IF) provided the subs track change within 45deg


The standard holding direction and timing is


1 min (wind adjusted)


When does outbound timing commence during a hold?

Abeam the fix or on attaining the outbound heading, whichever comes later


Describe a sector 1 entry

Sector 1 - Parallel entry

Over fix, fly 15secs (20s if head wind) then turn to parallel track outbound allowing for drift.

Time starts over or abeam fix, whichever’s later

Continue until time or DME distance

Turn in to intercept inbound track


Describe sector 2 entry

Sector 2 - Tear drop

Over fix, turn onto the holding side to make good a 30deg offset of the inbound track

Fly out IAW time specified, up to 1:30mins or DME limit

Turn in to intercept inbound track


Describe sector 3 entry

Sector 3 - direct entry

Turn into the published holding pattern

Times start abeam, or on completion of the turn if the abeam post can’t be determined


Define the takeoff minima for the B412

a. Clear of cloud until Vyse or Vmin IMC, and

b. Vis 800m (550m*)

* edge lights spacing 60m or less, and centreline marking/lights

Vyse = best RoC IAS when OEI = 45kts
Vmin IMC = 60kts


If you use the IFR takeoff minima to get airborne, you must ensure that the take-off must be conducted

a. IAW published IFR departure or when not avail, that terrain clr is assured

b. If OEI in IMC, terrain clr is assured to MDA/LSALT, or

If you plan to land back at departure AD, met must be at/abv the app/ldg minima.

If a rtn to AD not possible, fuel and performance allow transit to suitable AD


State IFR landing minima at AD’s without IAP



Day - IAW vis app requirements

Ngt - VMC from LSALT with 3nm


Landing minima for AD’s with NPA’s

By day and night - as specified on plate

However - if HIAL installed but U/S, must add 900m to LOC app minima


Landing minima for AD’s with PA’s

As published except

a. vis 1.5km if HIAL u/s

b. min 1.2km vis required unless;

1- Autopilot coupled or FD in use
2- att and hdg failure systems serviceable
3- High intensity rwy edge lighting avail


State QNH sources and factors

a. Approved source* = -100ft (if shaded)

b. TAF = as published

c. Area forecast = +50ft (if shaded)

* (ATC,ATIS,AWIS, CASA met) (15mins)


Can the B412 use Special Alt minima?

When are these not available?


Fitted with dual LOC, G/P and VOR receivers, and

One marker receiver + DME

N/A = no METAR/SPECI forecasts or ATC


During a PA, the altimeter check indicates an unexplained discrepancy. State actions

If on slope but altimeter reads high, add difference to DA.

If on slope but altimeter reads low = good to go

Discrepancy bad = Discontinue the ILS, option to continue with LOC approach.


SID wind considerations under vectors vs tracks

Vectors = no allowance for wind

Tracks = wind allowance to make good


Light signals from tower in flight

Steady green

Steady red

Green flashes

Red flashes

White flashes

Steady green = clr to land

Steady red = give way to others, continue circling

Green flashes = rtn for landing

Red flashes = do not land

White flashes = nil sig


Light signals from tower on ground

Steady green

Steady red

Green flashes

Red flashes

White flashes

Steady green = clr to take-off

Steady red = stop

Green flashes = clr to taxi

Red flashes = taxi clr of active landing area

White flashes = rtn to base


Ground signals to aircraft

Dumb bells


Double cross

Dumb bells = stick to hard surfaces

Cross near wind sock = AD u/s

Cross near an area = area marked u/s

Double cross = gliding ops in progress


Rated coverages of




Below 5000’ = 60nm
5000 - 10000 = 90nm


Tracking requirements for visual approach



Track as cleared until

By day, within 5nm

By night, IFR within circling area / VFR within 3nm

Then join cct as directed


Standard circuit direction



IFR taxi report

Melb centre


IFR , MEDIVAC, Bell 412


Taxiing pt Lincoln for Adelaide

Rwy 32


When must an IFR flight establish itself on track after departing an AD?

As soon as practicable but within 5nm


What weather conditions cause the requirement to provide for an alternate AD

a. Cloud > SCT below alt min

b. Vis < alt min

c. Vis > alt min but forecast includes a probability of vis < alt min

d. Wind > aircraft limits


Does a 30min buffer have to be applied to a TTF?



When is a Alternate aerodrome required when considering Radio Nav aids operating in IFR AWK category?

What other option exists by day?

Alt required unless,

Dest AD has 1x nav aid with IAP and aircraft equipped to use the nav aid

By day only,

No alt required if

a. cloud < SCT below LSALT +500’ and

b. Vis not less than 8000m


An alternate AD within 1hrs is required when operating under NVFR unless

a. Dest has a nav aid

b. Aircraft fitted with GNSS


When is an alternate AD required when considering rwy lighting?

Alternate required unless;

Portable + responsible person

Electric + Standby power

Electric + portable + responsible person

PAL + standby power + responsible person


An AD with PAL can be nominated as an alternate for non-RPT if aircraft equipped with

a. Dual VHF

b. Single VHF + HF + 30mins holding fuel


To avoid alternate lighting planning requirements, holding fuel can be carried for first light plus xx mins

First light plus 10mins


CTAF IFR taxi report

Traffic Pt Lincoln



Taxiing Pt Lincoln for adelaide

Rwy 15

Pt Lincoln


GNSS distance can be used in lieu of DME for IAP if...

1. The substitute DME reference is contained with GPS database

2. The substitute reference is annotated on approach chart


What is VMC by night in class G

Blw 10000’ =

5000m vis, 1000’ very, 1500m lat

Blw higher of 3000’ AMSL or 1000’ AGL =

5000m vis, clear of cloud and in sight of gnd/water


Dist from threshold in meters to

500ft markings







Altimeter check for IFR and VFR ops?

IFR within 60’ of AD elev using accurate QNH

Within 100’ for VFR

If error between 60 - 75ft, can fly to the next landing area with accurate QNH to re-check. If fails again = u/s