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Flashcards in All Education Flashcards Deck (30):


- Durkheim: It's a microcosm of society, function is to prepare students so they can be economically productive, which is done through teaching subjects like PE as this teaches N+Vs like teamwork. However, it is doubtful all students internalize the same N+Vs
- Parsons: Socialization of N+Vs, taught through hidden curriculum, teaches hierarchy and manners, however, n+vs of schools may not reflect those of society, e.g. raising your hand to talk and schools teach sociology which would be bad
- Davis and Moore: Role Allocation: Eval with Bowles and Gintis



Marx: Socializes obedient workers etc
Althusser: Ed is an ideological state apparatus (ISA), e.g. 9% go to fee-paying schools make up 52% of Ox-bridge (shows it isn't a meritocracy, and it favors the middle-classes)
Bowles and Gintis: Correspondence theory, eval with Davis and Moore
Eval of Mx: Too simplistic, reductionist to just class and economics, out of date?



1. Learning to Labour
2. 'Ladz' and the 'earoles'
3. Choice
4. Use to evaluate Marxism


Social Democratic Perspective

- Only include if specifically asked about
- A democratic system can produce govs. which promote welfare of society as a whole, ineqs in society prevent eq. of ed. opps. and reduce the effectiveness of ed. in producing ec. growth, believe that meritocracy is desrable
- Halsey: Believed that middle-class children are more likely to get into grammar schools which are more academic, as apposed to secondary modern (more voc. ed) giving middle classes the advantage, believed these should be replaced with comprehensive schools, want ineqs. reduced
- Eval: Despite intro of comprehensive schools, ineqs still remain, Woolf: Questions the view that higher spending on ed. will produce ec. growth, good primary and secondary ed are important, but spending does not necessarily lead to growth


The New Right

- It's a meritocracy, however, it's not perfect
- Butler Act '44
- Middle- class kids work harder



- Believe Education is Patriarchal
- Gender signposting


Class DEA: Material Deprivation

- Smith and Noble: Materiel Dep. is also important in influencing class differences
- Resources
- Travel
- Reay et al: Materiel factors as well as cultural factors were important, students from working-class backgrounds often had to do part-time work, over 25% of students at private schools got extra tuition
- Loans and tuition fees
- Callender and Jackobson: Those from poorer backgrounds were more afraid of debt which mat lead to them not going to higher ed


Class DEA: Cultural Factors:

- Bernstein: Elaborated and restricted code, middle-class have access to both, w. class only access the restricted code. Teachers, textbooks, exams etc: elaborated code
However: Gaine and George: His distinction between the classes is over-simplified, isn't a clear working class anymore, so not necessarily applicable
- Bourdieu: Cultural capital, e.g. opera, Habitus
- Ball et al: Parental choice, 3 tiers of parents, league tables
- Douglas: Longitudinal study, found the single most important factors was parental interest e.g. visiting the school more frequently to discuss the child's progress
However: Blackstone and Mortimore: his study is based on teacher's assessments of parental interest, w. class parents might not be able to go to visit the school etc,
- Saunders: Class doesn't matter, but m-class kids work harder, meritocracy but not perfect, Butler Act '44


Class DEA: In-School Factors:

- Rosenthal and Jacobson: Teacher labeling - 'ideal pupil' - teacher expectations, self-fulfilling prophecy, caused y teacher encouragement of lack of
- Hargreaves: Academic subculture (top- stream - ideal pupil - given best teachers), delinquent subculture (bottom stream - no status - formed groups which reversed the norms of schools) Halo effect: Benefit of doubt to 'good students'
- Lacey: Peer Labeling; social pressure
- Keddie: Looked at the effects of streaming in a London Comprehensive school, she found that: more advanced knowledge was withheld from lower streams, knowledge that came from pupil's own experiences was devalued, abstract knowledge was valued more highly, teachers assumed that lower sets were not interested in their education and tended to interpret their contributions in class negatively, middle-class children fitted the image of the ideal pupil more closely than w. class pupils and therefore tended to be placed in higher streams
- Eval: Woods: Has practical applications in schools
- The origins of the class differences aren't explained
- According to some, they also fail to take account of other factors
- Many studies are outdated and may not applicable today


Gender DEA: What are the differences?

In the late 1980's girls were less likely to achieve 1 or more A levels or go on to higher ed
However, 90's: reversal, males started to underachieve; in 2006, 45% of females but only 35% of boys achieved 2 or more A levels


Gender DEA: Innate ability

One explanation of why girls may underachieve is innate ability, however, girls actually out-perform boys in IQ tests at young ages
Trowler: Bio explanations aren't very useful:
- There is little differences between IQ tests of boys and girls
- Differences in specific ability may be a product of social rather than biological differences


Gender DEA: Early Socialisation

Normal et al: Before children start school, they already experience sex stereotyping, e.g. differences in toys that may reinforce stereotypes. e.g. dolls reinforcing the women are caring
- Gender Stereotyping in the media
- However: Sharpe: Girls' priorities are changing
- Abraham: looked at textbooks at a comprehensive school, found men and women were shown in stereotypical roles


Gender DEA: Classroom behaviour

Stanworth: Study of A level classes, found that teachers found it difficult to remember the girls in their classes, held stereotypical views of what they would be doing in the future and found that girls felt that boys got more attention from teachers
- Randall: argues that this is based on interviews rather that direct observation, therefore can't actually establish if more attention as given to boys, Randall's research showed no such clear-cut bias


Gender DEA: Why do Girls achieve?

-Mitos and Browne: The women's movement and feminism have raised the expectations and self-esteem of women
- The Increase in the service sector and part-time work has opening up opportunities for women
- Society has also become more individualised and people are being more self-reliant, girls see greater security from being well-qualified


Gender DEA: Why do Boys underachieve?

- However: Francis and Skelton: Believe there is a moral panic about the underachievement of boys, they have been improving, just not as fast as girls
- Francis: argues that both boys and girls have problems in the education system, she argues that: boys get more attention from teachers, but also are more criticised for their behaviour, and girls are more likely to fit the stereotype of the ideal pupil


Gender DEA: Boy's behaviour

- Jackson: used interviews and questionnaires (EVAL!) to study masculinity and femininity in 8 schools
- Found schools were dominated by hegemonic masculinity
- Academic work was considered too feminine
- However: Many boys did still want qualifications and worked harder at home
- He believed that the laddish masculinity is a response to a fear of failure
- The number of unskilled and semi-skilled manual jobs has decreased, wo. class men no longer have a sense of identity, most new jobs in the service sector are more feminine
- Laddish behaviour is used to restore a sense of masculinity


Ethnicity and attainment intro information

- Most ethnic minorities tend to do less well than other members of the population, however, not one homogeneous group;
- E.g. Indian pupils in 2006 (Youth Cohort Study) were most likely to gain 5 or more A*-C GCSEs, whereas black pupils were least likely, whites were somewhere in the middle
- Young people from all ethnic groups were more likely to stay on in ed until 18 than all whites
- Overall, Chinese were most successful in the British education system


Ethnicity, Social Class and Atainment

- Class = closely linked to ed attainment, therefore poor ed performance by ethnic minorities could be a result of the relatively high proportion that come from a w. class background
- However: Modood: Class differences were higher among whites than ethnic minority groups
- Argues that some ethnic minorities do well despite w.class backgrounds due to having cultural capital as some members of ethnic minorities, for example, Indians and East African Asians, experiences a downward mobility


African Caribbean Underachievement

- Coard: Argues that ethnic minorities are made to feel inferior in the British Ed system for example, a disproportionate amount are placed in ESN schools when many have the ability to be in a mainstream school, the content of ed also tends to ignore black people, many teachers also can be racist, teachers tend to have lower expectations of black pupils, attitudes in the classroom are reinforced by pupils in the playground, where racial abuse and bullying may occur
- However, his views are based on impressionistic evidence and are out of date, but recent research does show that African Caribbean boys are between 4 and 5 times more likely to be excluded


Young, Female and Black

Mirza: Studies 2 comprehensive schools in South London, used observation, questionnaires and informal interviews (EVAL)
- The black girls did better than black boys and white pupils in the school, believes the educational achievements of black women are underestimated
- Challenges the labeling theory, although some racism among the teachers, she argues that it didn't undermine the self-confidence of the black girls and most were concerned with academic success and prepared to work had
- Many teachers failed to push black pupils hard enough or patronized them


Ethnic Minorities in Sixth Form

- Mac an Ghail: studies African Caribbean students in a sixth-form college in the Midlands, used observation and interviews (EVAL!) with students, parents and teachers, how found the way students responded to schooling varied considerable by gender, ethnicity and class
- For example, all ethnic minorities experienced problems, however, many developed survival strategies, e.g. some of the girls banded together and would help each other and other ethnic minority pupils tried to become friendly with teachers they didn't think were racist


Black Masculinities

- Sewell: Argues factors outside school are more important than racism in school to explain the low achievement of many A/C boys, findings based on a study of black students in a boy's comprehensive schools
- Found that many were in SPFs and therefore lack an adult male role model, may not be well disciplined, more vulnerable to peer pressure and for example, some may be drawing into gangs which emphasize the macho masculinity , gang culture compensates for a sense of rejection by fathers
- He has been criticised for blaming black culture for the education failure of African Caribbean boys and drawing attention away from the failings of the education system


Muslim Boys and Education

- Archer: carried out research involving group interviews on Muslim boys in 4 schools in Northwest England, she studied the types of identity they developed
- Boys saw themselves primarily as Muslim an felt they did not truly belong in England or in their country of origin
- They drew on African Caribbean street culture (e.g. gansta rap) some called themselves black, most claimed to be members of gangs
- They thought that teachers favored girls and expected them to do better in exams, responded by seeing their laddish behavior as part of their masculine identity but still saw themselves as breadwinner, some felt racism help them back and looked to the family business as a way of earning a living
- However: the validity could be questioned, interviews were conducted by Archer (a white British woman) or by a British Pakistani woman, the nature of the audience may well have influenced the responses they gave


Market Liberal Theory

- It is critical of the state provision of services like public ed
- Public choice theory: services provided by the state bureaucracies tend to be ineffective and inefficient, little incentive to provide a good service as there is no competition
- Chubb and Moe: believe state Ed is unresponsive to the needs of pupils and parents, whereas private Ed has to please its customers in order to survive


Competition, choice and standards

- Thought the best way to raise standards was to introduce marketization
- 1988 - Ed reform Act
- National Curriculum
- Ofsted
- However: Less popular schools left behinds and may provide inadequate ed, Lauder et al: This can particularly affect the w. class
- Where schools are over-subscribed, there is little genuine choice, class difference in opportunities to go to good schools can be created - e.g. better-off parents may buy houses in areas with better schools


Education and Economic Growth

- Ed should be concerned with promoting economic growth rather than equality
- School leavers are unemployed due to lack of skills, so voc ed introduced
- Youth Training Schemes (however, gender signposting, class signposting, didn't guarantee jobs but did reduce crime)
- Training credits
- Curriculum content: business - orientated curriculum also introduced, emphasis of traditional values and subjects e.g. Latin
- Social Ed and multicultural approaches were frowned upon


Testing and Examining

- Parents needed info to make choices about schools, therefore testing and publication of results were necessary
- League tables
- Testing and attainment targets introduced for children aged 7, 11, 14, 16
- However, Bartlett and Le Grand: believe it leads to 'cream skimming' - schools try to select the best pupils to improve their results and image
- Ransom: believes the policies create an over-emphasis on results at the expense of other aspects of ed


Eval of Ed reforms

- Research in the USA by Levin an Belfield found that the intro of greater competition led to small improvements in overall standards, however, those from middle-class backgrounds improved more than those from w. class backgrounds, increasing inequality


New Labour and Education

- Wanted greater equality
- Extra resources to Education Action Zones
- Sure Start
- Academies introduced to replace failing schools - received money from gov. and sponsorships
- Further Ed expanded - Target of 50%
- Education Maintenance allowances
- However, kept certain policies such as assessments, tests, league tables, but added a value-added measure


Eval of New Labour

- Tomlinson: argues that Labour's pre-occupation with standards, Comp and choice and markets have ed to greater selection in education, which is favored by the middle-classes successful schools also cream-skim
- McKnight et al: conducted research showing that overall ed standards have risen under labour with improvements in GCSEs, A-levels and key stage tests, also a small reduction in class differences, however the class gap is still very wide