All-In-One Chapter 5 - Managing the Project Scope Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in All-In-One Chapter 5 - Managing the Project Scope Deck (51):

8/80 Rule

a planning heuristic for creating the WBS. This rule states that the work package in a WBS must take no more than 80 hours of labor to create and no fewer than 8 hours of labor to create


Active observation

the observer interacts with the worker to ask questions and understand each step of the work being completed. In some instances, the observer could serve as an assistant in doing the work.


Affinity diagrams

when stakeholders create a large number of ideas, you can use an affinity diagram to cluster similar ideas together


Alternatives generation

a scope definition process of finding alternative solutions for the project customer while considering the customer's satisfaction, the cost of the solution, and how the customer may use the product in operations



this approach encourages participants to generate as many ideas as possible about the project requirements. No idea is judged or dismissed during the brainstorming session.


Change control system (CCS)

documented in the scope management plan, this system defines how changes to the project scope are managed and controlled


Change management plan

this subsidiary plan defines how changes will be allowed and managed within the project


Code of accounts

a numbering system for each item in the WBS


Configuration management plan

this subsidiary plan defines how changes to the features and functions of the project deliverables will be monitored and controlled within the project


Context diagram

these diagrams show the relationship between elements of an environment


Delphi technique

this approach uses rounds of anonymous surveys to build consensus. because the surveys are anonymous, participants are more likely to be honest with their requirements, opinions, and statements



a decision method where only one individual makes the decision for the group


Focus group

a moderator-led requirements collection method to elicit requirements from stakeholders


Functional analysis

the study of the functions within a system, project, or the product the project will be creating. Studies the goals of the product, how the product will be used, and the expectations the customer has of the product once it leaves the project and moves into operations


Funding limit

most projects have a determined budget in relation to the project scope. There may be a qualifier on this budget, such as plus or minus 10 percent based on the type of cost estimate created


Initial project organization

the project scope statement identifies the project team and the key stakeholders



a requirements collection method used to elicit requirements from stakeholders in a one-on-one conversation



a group decision method where more than 50 percent of the group must be in agreement


Mind mapping

this approach maps ideas to show the relationship among requirements and the differences between requirements


Nominal group technique

as with brainstorming, participants are encouraged to generate as many ideas as possible, but the suggested ideas are ranked by a voting process


Passive observation

the observer records information about the work being completed without interrupting the process; sometimes called the invisible observer



a group-decision method where the largest part of the group makes the decision when its less than 50 percent of the total


Product acceptance criteria

project scope statement component works with the project requirements, but focuses specifically on the product and what the conditions and processes are for formal acceptance of the product


Product breakdown

a scope definition technique that breaks down a product into a hierarchical structure, much like a WBS breaks down a project scope


Product scope description

a narrative description of what the project is creating as a deliverable for the project customer


Product scope

defines the product or service that will come about as a result of completing the project. It defines the features and functions that characterize the product


Project assumption

a factor in the planning process that is held to be true but not proven to be true


Project boundaries

clearly states what is included with the project and what's excluded from the project


Project constraints

anything that limits the project manager's options


Project objective

measurable goals that determine a project's acceptability to the project customer and the overall success of the project


Project requirements

the demands set by the customer, regulations, or the performing organization that mus exist for the project deliverables to be acceptable


Project scope

defines all of the work, and only the required work, to complete the project objectives


Project scope management plan

subsidiary plan that controls how the scope will be defined, how the project scope statement will be created, how the WBS will be created, how scope validation will proceed, and how the project scope will be controlled throughout the project



a model of the finished deliverable that allows the stakeholder to see how the final project deliverable may operate


Requirements documentation

documentation of what the stakeholders expect in the project, defines all of the requirements that must be present for the work to be accepted by the stakeholders


Requirements management plan

subsidiary plan defines how changes to the project requirements will be permitted, how requirements will be tracked, and how changes to the requirements will be approved


Requirements traceability matrix (RTM)

a table that maps the requirements throughout the project all the way to their completion


Schedule milestones

the project customer may have specific dates when phases of the project should be completed


Scope creep

undocumented, unapproved changes to the project scope


Scope validation

the formal inspection of the project deliverables, which leads to project acceptance


Stakeholder analysis

a scope definition process where the project management team interviews the stakeholders and categorizes, prioritizes, and documents what the project customer wants and needs


Systems analysis

a scope definition approach that studies and analyzes a system, its components, and the relationship of the components within the system


Systems engineering

project scope statement creation process studies how a system should work, designs and creates a system model, and then enacts the working system based on the project's goals and the customer's expectations



a group decision method where everyone must be in agreement


Value analysis

this approach examines the functions of the projects product in relation to the cost of the features and functions


Value engineering

this approach to project scope statement creation attempts to find the correct level of quality in relation to a reasonable budget for the project deliverable while still achieving an acceptable level of performance of the product


WBS dictionary

a WBS companion document that defines all of the characteristics of each element within the WBS


WBS template

a prepopulated WBS for repetitive projects. Previous projects' WBSs are often used as templates for current similar projects


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

a deliverables-oriented breakdown of the project scope


Work package

the smallest item in the WBS


Work performance information

status of the deliverables: the work that's been started, finished or has yet to begin