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Kaiser to Führer 1900-18 > All Together > Flashcards

Flashcards in All Together Deck (79):
1

Von Bulow appointed Chancellor Date

1900

2

Herero Uprising Date

1904
Weltpolitik - Creation of Empire outside Europe

3

Hottentot Election Date

1907

4

Daily Telegraph Affair Date

1908

5

Zabern Affair Date

1913 - Led to vote of no confidence 293:54

6

Tariff Laws Date

1902 - High duty on imported agricultural products
Junker support, food more expensive

7

Army Bill Date

1913 - Increase Army to 870,000
Weltpolitik - Creation of Empire outside Europe

8

Sickness Insurance Law Date

1903

9

Banning Child Labour Date

1908

10

Navy Law Date

1900 - 38 Battleships over 20 years
Flottenpolitik - Creation of a fleet to control colonies
Weltpolitik - Creation of Empire outside Europe

11

Imperial Insurance Code Date

1911

12

Accident Insurance Law Date

1900

13

Weltpolitik

Creation of Empire outside Europe

14

Flottenpolitik

Creation of a fleet to control colonies

15

Daily Telegraph Affair

1908 - Von Bulow humiliated Kaiser allowed the interview to be published. Forced resignation, vital to please Kaiser to retain position, regardless of achievements.

16

Zabern Affair

1913 - Bethmann-Hollwigg mismanaged the Zabern affair,, initiating a vote of no confidence. 293:54, dismissed by Kaiser and allowed to continue.

17

Rohl Belief's

That the Kaiser had all the power, everyone who served under him army, chancellors and ambassadors were appointed by him and reliant on his favour. Advancing militaristic and conservative agendas.

18

Policy of Weltpolitik

World Policy - Supreme Army Commander, pass laws which helped him achieve his foreign policy. Foreign policy based on his own beliefs, significantly affected the budget

19

Army Law

1913 - Saw the increase of the army to 870,000 people, Flottenpolitik.

20

Navy Law

1900 - Saw the increase of the amount of battleships to 38 over the next 20 years, Flottenpolitik.

21

Conclusion - Kaiser

The period wasn't a parliamentary democracy, but of an autocratic monarchy, where policy was based on Kaiser's beliefs and his influence on elected institutions (Hollwigg).

22

Power of Kaiser

-Appoint/dismiss Chancellor
-Full power of Foreign policy
-Always King of Prussia (favouritism)
-Military Oath to Kaiser not people

23

Sammsungpolitik

Unite the political parties to support Weltpolitik.

24

1900-13 Period Quote

Karl Liebknecht - 'A fig leaf for absolutism' portraying how ineffective democracy was and that it was more the personal rule of the Kaiser.

25

Prussia Quote

Chris Clark - 'Nothing but a vehicle for Prussian domination'

26

Prussia and the Kaiser

Proposals made in favour of Prussia. Prussian military dwarfed south foreign policy decided by Prussian foreign policy. Complete control of Bundesrat making/changing policy, 17 votes 14 needed .

27

Parliamentary Democracy

The fact that it exists, conforms to democracy as it is elected and represents the people.

28

Minimum age of voting

Every man over the age of 25, regardless of any property qualification.

29

Accident Insurance Law

1900 - Reichstag

30

Sickness Law

1903 - Reichstag

31

Prohibition of Child Labour

1908 - Reichstag

32

Conclusion - Reichstag

The Reichstag was a democratically elected institution which clearly represented the people with the social acts that they passed.

33

Vetoing

Prussia was given 17 votes, although you only needed 14 to veto a policy.

34

Herero Uprising

1904 - Von Bulow became unpopular with the centre party unable to pass laws. Leading to the Hottentot Election

35

Hottentot Election

1907 - Von Bulow was able to dissolve parliament and call for a reelection. SPD + Centre Part joined to vote down the budget for colonialism.

36

Seats gained/lost Hottentot

SPD - Lost 38 to 43 overall
Centre Party - Gained 5 to 105 overall

37

Hottentot Conclusion

Able to alter the composition of the Reichstag to be able to implement his policies.

38

Elites

Junkers, Industrialists, Army and Bureaucrats

39

Wehler

Believed thats the elites controlled Germany and used the Kaiser as frontman for them with their vested interests.

40

Interests of Elite

Extremely anti-socialist and anti-democratic wanting to protect their position.

41

Examples of Elite interference

Expansionary foreign policy, Herero. Army and Navy Laws. 1902 Tariff laws manipulated by the Agrarian League.

42

Conclusion - Elite

The elites could influence their interests with the Kaiser, to protect themselves. Expansion distracted people fromt he real injustices. 1900 Naval Law / 1902 Tariff.

43

SPD Wants

They wanted to create a more democratic society, where people had more power.

44

Elections

1912 - 110 deputies largest party

45

Mansfeld Strike

1909 - Firm anti-socialist 5 week strike with no outcome showed no voice/influence.

46

Socialist Laws

Imperial Insurance Code - 1911
Banning Child Labour - 1908
Sickness Insurance Law - 1903
Power of socialism increasingly prominent

47

Tariff Law

1902 - Rise in SPD support 56 seats in Reichstag to 81

48

Burgfreide

Political truce at start, unanimously pass laws for necessary loans to finance war. Kept peaceful SD's happy, as WW1 was perceived as a defensive until 1916. Patriotic support.

49

Kaiser - WW1

Exerted no military/political control. Reduction in control, as Hindenberg and Lundendorff appointed head of Army with massive popularity from East victory, undermining authority.

50

Bethmann - WW1

Bethmann relied on Kaiser support led to reduction in power or chancellor and Reichstag, unable to resist military interference.

51

Silent Dictatorship

With threat of resignation they wielded huge power over economic, military and political affairs, where power lay for the last 2 years

52

Siegfreide

A victory peace, where Germany could use their war victory to claim a world power status. Split the Reichstag, as SPD believed it was a defensive war why need to expand.

53

Impact of Silent Dictatorship (SD)

War aims became apparent, conflicting opinions in the Reichstag, political parties less supportive of the policies. Conflicting interests Reich/Bethmann and Generals.

54

SPD - WW1

The policy of Siegfreide split the party and created the USPD and the voting of war credits, showing the growing polarisation.

55

Erzberger

Able to pass a peace resolution by 212-126 1917, he formed a majority in the Reichstag on a particular issue. Significant political unity in the silent dictatorship

56

Overall - WW1

Inability to produce a quick victory caused doubts over true war aims ↓ political unity. The Burgfreide united. SD conflicting interests no power from people, ↓ any unity Reich not required for rule.

57

Total Food shortage deaths WW1

700,000 by end of war

58

Short Term Cause - 1918 Rev

World War One

59

Long Term Cause - 1918 Rev

Social and Economic discontent

60

Generals

Defeat certain, Germany not defeated under General's rule, new government signed armistice. Create the Stab in the back myth, push blame protect themselves.

61

Result of WW1

Army Generals moved power from Kaiser to Reichstag before end, revolutionise political system protecting Army/reputations, greater negotiating power during armistice talks, conceding political revolution.

62

Social/Economic Discontent

War financed by printing money/borrowing-inflation, coal/harvests used for army, starved/cold.

63

Mark Value between 1913-17

Lost 75% of its value.

64

Deaths from Starvation/Hypothermia

300,000 in 1918 alone

65

Soc/Econ Consequence WW1

The people resented industrial owners making profits. Increase rich and poor gap, socialism more attractive. Increase in popularity increased pressure on current system to change to socialism.

66

Popularity of SPD

1912 - 110 seats in Reichstag largest party

67

Significance of SPD

Reform of the political system was key demand by the majority of the people.

68

Kiel

31st Oct 1918 - Challenge authority, Army/Navy leaders lost control. Last battle retrieve dignity, sailors angry refused. Set up Worker/Soldier Councils, similar to Soviets in Russ Rev 1918, took control of military/civil matters of cities.

69

Prince Max of Baden

To prevent national rev from socialists he made political changes. Created a more democratic system, appointing the left-wing Freidrich Ebert as Chancellor and announced the abdication of the Kasier.

70

Effect of the left - Whole Period

Increased political pressure for change from left, caused Prince to revolutionise political system, a long term pressure/demand of population since the 1912 Election, known as the ‘Revolution from below’.

71

Socialist Conclusion - Whole Period

Long term - SPD/socialist ideology people to challenged authority, refuse orders continue rev cause setting up socialist rep, replicate Russia. Force Junkers to change autocracy - democracy.

72

WW1 Conclusion

Generals proposed altering political system with an armistice to protect reputation of the Army, for Germany would now lose the war, due to the army being under the control of the civilian government.

73

Soc/Econ Conclusion - WW1

Created resentment/divide between the rich/poor of, rich making profit, poor starved. Resentment fuelled socialism increased pressure on the Second Reich to change political system.

74

Overall - Rev

Overall these three long and short term events contributed significantly to the rev within Germany in 1918, transforming the autocratic monarchy into a more democratic system.

75

Unfairness of Prussian system

1903 - 23% of vote 7 seats
1903 - 16% of vote 212 seats

76

Policies of Bethmann-Hollwegg

1910 - Attempted to change the Prussian 3 tier voting system.
1911 - Insurance Code

77

Chris Clark

Liberal elements stronger than thought

78

Kaiser Autocracy

Kaiser could appoint chancellors (1909) and dissolve the Reichstag (1906)
Ministers accountable to Kaiser (Zabern Affair 1913)
Army accountable to Kaiser (1913 Zabern)
Followed the Kaiser colonial agenda

79

Reichstag During War

1914 enabling act passed power to Bundesrat
Didn't change any of the 800 passed laws in war