Altered Bowel Habits Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Altered Bowel Habits > Flashcards

Flashcards in Altered Bowel Habits Deck (19):
1

What is the general function of duodenum?

Chemical digestion

2

What is the general function of the jejunum?

Absorbs nutrients

3

What is the general function of the ileum?

Absorbs bile salts, water, B12 and electrolytes

4

What are the characteristics of diarrhea?

• High stool frequency (more than 3/day)
• More than 200g of stool/day
• Abnormally loose stool

5

What are some alarm signs with diarrhea?

• Severe abdominal pain
• Fevers
• Recent hospitalization or antimicrobial use

6

What populations is diarrhea a major concern in?

• Elderly
• Immunocompromised
• Inflammatory Bowel Disease
• Pregnant patients

7

Steatorrhea

• Fat excretion more than 14g/day
• Bulky, oily, malodorous stools

8

What are some of the causes of steatorrhea?

• Small intestine bacterial overgrowth
• Celiac disease
• Whipple’s disease
• Pancreatic insufficiency

9

What are some of the causes of Secretory Diarrhea?

• Bile acid malabsorption
• NSAIDS, colchicine
• Noninvasive infections - cholera

10

What are some the key findings with secretory diarrhea?

- fails to improve with fasting
- stool osmotic gap less than 50
- no steatorrhea

11

Osmotic Diarrhea

Usually malabsorption of carbohydrates
• Lactose intolerance (most common)
• Also fructose, sorbitol, etc.

12

What are the key signs of osmotic diarrhea?

- improves with fasting
- stool osmotic gap greater than 100
- no steatorrhea

13

What are the clinical signs of inflammatory diarrhea?

Abdominal pain, bleeding, fever, weight loss

14

What are some of the causes of inflammatory diarrhea?

• Inflammatory Bowel Disease
• Ischemia

15

Motility Related Diarrhea

Rapid transit decreases the amount of time for water absorption

16

What are some of the causes of motility related diarrhea?

• Hyperthyroidism
• Diabetes

17

What are the characteristics of constipation?

• straining during defecation
• passage of lumpy or hard stool
• sensation of incomplete defecation

18

What are some of the alarm signs with constipation?

• Age greater than 50
• New onset constipation in the elderly
• Weight loss
• Family history of colon cancer

19

What are the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome?

- Recurrent abdominal pain 3 days/month
- 2 or more of the following
• Improvement with defecation
• Change in frequency of stool
• Change in appearance of stoo

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