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Flashcards in Alveolar Bone Deck (25)
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What is the alveolar bone and what is its purpose

Specialised bone of the maxilla and mandible which supports and protects the tooth roots


What is the alveolar bone composed of

- Alveolar bone proper
- Supporting bone


What is the boundary of the alveolar bone

An arbitrary horizontal line at the bottom of the root apices, separating the alveolar bone from the body of the mandible and maxilla


What calcified to form bone



What is the main protein in the organic bone matrix

90% type 1 collagen


What are the roles of collagen and non collagenous proteins in the alveolar bone

Collagenous = resilience to prevent fracture and ability to resist loads
Non-collagenous = play a role in mineralisation


What cells secrete intrinsic and extrinsic collagen

Intrinsic = secreted by osteoblasts - i think this means collagen in the bones
Extrinsic = secreted by fibroblasts - i think this means collagen in the ECM


What is the last thing that osteoblasts do in their lifecycle

Become embedded in the matrix which then mineralises, after it gets entrapped the osteoblasts becomes inactive osteocytes


What are the bone lining cells

Flattened undifferentiated inactive osteoblasts cover the bone surface, they function as a barrier for certain ions


Whats the difference in the nucleus' of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Osteoblasts = mononucleate
Osteoclasts = large multinucleate cells


What do osteoclasts do

They create acidic environments and secrete enzymes which resorb bone, located in resorption howship's lacunae


What are osteoprogenitor cells

- Mesenchymal fibroblast-like cells
- Regarded as forming a stem cell population generating osteoblasts and osteoclasts
- Situated near blood vessels of the periodontal ligament space


What does each lamella in compact lamellar bone have in it

A Haversian canal that contains blood vessels and nerves, surrounded by concentric lamellae, overall this forms and osteon


Describe the thickness of the alveolar bone at different parts of the maxilla

The bone is thicker at the palatal aspects of the teeth composed to the buccal aspects


Describe the thickness of the alveolar bone at different parts of the mandible

- In incisor and premolar regions (anteriorly), the cortical bone plate is thinner buccally compared to lingually
- In molar region (posteriorly) the cortical bone is thinner lingually and thicker buccally


At which part of the teeth is the alveolar bone proper thinner and thicker

The alveolar bone proper is thin at the margins of the teeth (coronally) and thicker towards the root apex


What is the inner alveolar bone proper, that surrounds the roots of the teeth, forming the tooth socket as referred to as

Inner cortical plate
Lamina Dura
Bundle bone
Cribiform Plate
Note: remember this part of the bone is compact bone


What causes the sieve-like appearance of the inner alveolar bone proper

The numerous perforations formed by the vascular canals - Volkmann's canals


Between the external and internal cortical plates compact bone what is there

Variable amounts of spongy cancellous bone


Is the external or internal layer of compact bone thicker

External is thicker


What is the alveolar crest

Where the external and inner compact cortical plates meet


What are the functions of the alveolar bone

- Support and protection
- Storage
- Blood cell formation
- Acts as a shock-absorber
- Attachment for teeth
- Strength
- Tooth movement


How does the alveolar bone act as a storage ting

- Fat is stored in the bone marrow spaces
- Bone matrix acts as a reservoir for ions particularly calcium and phosphorus


How does the alveolar bone act as an attachment ting

- Serves as an attachment apparatus for the teeth
- Supplies vessels to the periodontal ligament fibres
- Provides attachment to the periodontal ligament fibres
- Those that enter the bone are regarded as Sharpey’s fibres which act as an important buffer medium against stress


How does the maintenance of the alveolar bone occur

• The teeth act as a functional matrix for the alveolar bone
• Therefore if there is failure of tooth development there alveolar bone is fail to fully form
• In addition when teeth are lost (following tooth extraction) the alveolar bone with atrophy