Alveolar destruction & +++ pulmonary artery press. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Alveolar destruction & +++ pulmonary artery press. Deck (33):
1

True or false type two respiratory failure is any cause of inadequate ventilation?

True

2

What's diffuses easier across the alveolar membrane: CO2 or O2?

CO2

3

Approximately how many alveoli do you have in your lungs?

200 to 300 million

4

What four things are the alveolar capillary membrane composed of?

Player of surfactant
type alveolar cell
basement membrane
vascular endothelial cell

5

How thick is the alveoli – capillary membrane?

2 cells thick

6

What is the average surface area for diffusion of gases in the lungs?

75 m2

7

Why are the lungs ideally suited for gas exchange?

Large surface area and thinness

8

3 physiological effects of disrupting the a – c membrane?

1. abnormal gas exchange
2 abnormal lung mechanics
3 pulmonary vascular complications

9

What does Fick's law determine??

Rate of diffusion of the gas

10

Should there be a limitation in diffusion of oxygen in a normal person at maximum exercise?

Nope. only perfusion limited

11

When would you get a diffusion limitation of oxygen transfer? 2 situations

at rest if abnormal A-C membrane
during exercise if less severe disease

12

How much faster does CO2 diffuse out compared to O2?

20x faster

13

When is one of the only times he would get a high PaCO2?

low ventilation ie. type 2 reap failure

14

How is emphysema an exception in the restrictive lung disease category?

It has increased lung compliance not stiffer

15

What is the pattern of breathing for restrictive lung diseases?

Short and shallow rate

16

Increased work of breathing needs to overcome the stiffness of what in the lungs?

elastic/reduced compliance of lungs

17

What is the PaO2 and PaCO2 of someone in respiratory muscle fatigue/failure?

PaO2 is less than 60mmHg
PaCO2 is greater than 50 mmHg

18

What is a hallmark reduction in someone with stiff lungs?

reduced vital capacity

19

Compliance of the lungs are affected by two things they are?

Tissue composition
Surface tension in alveoli

20

Over compliant/elastic lungs are what disease?

Emphysema

21

Pulmonary fibrosis does what to the compliance of the lungs?

decreased/stiff

22

For a minute ventilation a person will adopt a pattern of breathing that is what?

Minimizes the work of breathing

23

how is maximum ventilation affected in restrictive lung diseases?

reduced especially in exercise

24

What does asbestosis do to lungs?

abnormal increases in fibrosis and diffuse inflammation that destroys A-C membrane

25

What kind of crackles do you hear with asbestosis?

inspiratory crackles of airways popping open due to collapses

26

What does the following indicate?
Tachypnea
finger clubbing/cyanosis
increase JVP
bassal crepitations
tender pulsatile hapatomegaly
ascites
peripheral oedema

Pulmonary hypertension

27

How do you get a tricuspid pan-systolic murmur?

when you have right ventricular dilatation and the cusps don't come together perfectly due to inexperience with higher pressures

28

Pulmonary hypertension does what to the right atrial and systemic venous pressures??

increased

29

What is ascites?

accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing swelling

30

What happens when you increase systemic venous pressure to the systemic capillary bed? 3 things:

peripheral oedema
ascites
pleural effusions

31

Three most common causes of increased pulmonary area vascular resistance:

vasoconstriction (hypovent)
obstruction (emboli, pulm HTN)
obliteration (emphysema, fibrosis)

32

The three most common causes of pulmonary hypertension?

Increased left atrial pressure (mitral stenosis)
Increased pulmonary blood flow (shunts, HTN)
Increased pulmonary vascular resistance

33

What is lassitude ?

a state of physical or mental weariness