Alzheimer's Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Alzheimer's Disease Deck (31):
0

A gradual on-set of short-term memory loss and functional impairment in more than 1 domain

Dementia

1

A step-wise, sudden deterioration in cognition including episodes of confusion , aphasia, and slurred speech

Cerebrovascular disease

2

Acute cognitive impairment with clouded sensorium

delirium

3

Phenomenon that a high-frequency stimulus will change the neuron in a way in which the activity continues to be higher even with decreased stimulation

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

4

Alzheimer's agent that is an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist

Memantine

5

Area of the brain that contains the cell bodies of neurons that synthesize acetylcholine

basal forebrain nuclei

6

Cholinesterase that has a higher concentration in the brain and is relatively selective for acetylcholine

acertylcholinesterase

7

Function of acetylcholinesterases

terminate cholinergic transmission

8

acetylcholinesterase that is mainly localized in the peripheral tissues and glial cells and is relatively non-selective

butyrylcholinesterase

9

Isoform of acetylcholinesterase that is preferentially lost with Alzheimer's progression

G4 (tetromer)

10

3 cholinesterase inhibitors commonly used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease

1. Donepezil
2. Rivastigmine
3. Galantamine

11

Cholinesterase inhibitor that is selective for AChE over BuChE

Donepezil

12

Cholinesterase inhibitor that is selective for both AChE and BuChE and has a greater potency for G1 than G4

Rivastigmine

13

Cholinesterase inhibitor that is 50x more selective for AChE over BuChE and is also a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

Galantamine

14

Abnormality that occurs within neurons in Alzheimer's disease

neurofibrillary tangles

15

Extracellular abnormality that occurs with Alzheimer's disease

amyloid plaques

16

Secretases that must cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) for abnormal beta-amyloid to be formed

beta and gamma secretases

17

Molecules that become hyperphosphorylated and clump together in neurofibrillary tangles

tau

18

Brain imaging that can be done to look for beta-amyloid and diagnose probable Alzheimer's

Positive Emission Tomography (PET) scan

19

Primary screening tool for Alzheimer's disease that gives patients a score between 0-30

Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE)

20

Score range on MMSE that designates normal cognitive function

24-30

21

Score on MMSE that designates mild dementia

18-23

22

Score on MMSE that designates moderate dementia

10-17

23

Score on MMSE that designates severe dementia

<10

24

Cognitive function test that involves giving patients 3 words to remember and having them perform a clock draw test

Mini Cog Test

25

Class of drugs that have an unapproved use in dementia due to increased mortality with us in this population

Atypical antipsychotics

26

Dosing regimen for donepezil

5 mg QHS for 6 weeks then 10 mg/day

27

Dosing regimen for rivastigmine

1.5 mg BID and increase by 1.5 mg BID every 2 weeks up to 6 mg BID

28

Dosing regimen for galantamine

4 mg BID x4 weeks then increase to 8 mg BID then increase to 12 mg BID

29

Severe dermatologic disease that has been linked to galantamine

Stephen's Johnson Syndrome

30

Dosing regimen for memantine

5 mg QD then increase at minimum 1 week intervals to 10 mg/day (5mg BID), then 15 mg/day (5 mg and 10 mg in separate doses), then 20 mg/day (10 mg BID)