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what was the wounded knee massacre?

the whites misinterpreted the Indians' ghost dance and opened fire on the Indians. within ten minutes 146 Indians and 25 US soldiers were dead, including 7 indian babies. It was the last conflict between the US army and the Sioux


extermination of the buffalo

were wiped out from 25 million before to only hundreds left by the 1890s. This meant that the indians had no food and had to rely on the whites


what was the first event of Law and Order in the american west?

mining towns 1849


when were the mining towns



key points about mining towns

-no police
-full of men
-gun conflict/violence
-racism - chinese miners


what was the second event of Law and Order in the American west?

Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp and OK Corrall 1860/70


Billy the kid

-cattle rustler and horse thief - famous for escaping the local jails
-he was involved in Lincoln County War 1878 - conflict between cattle baron John Chisum and smaller settlers and ranchers who were desperate for more land.


Lincoln county war

1. Lawrence Murphy and James Dolan had controlled
Lincoln County for years - business called "the
2. John Tunstall tried to set up rival business
3. Murphy ordered Tunstall's death, Tunstall's group of
cowboys set out for revenge
4. killings and counter-killings continued throughout
Lincoln County, with law officers involved on both
5. ended with a 5-day battle in the town - Tunstall's
store was burned
6. McSween and more than 30 others were killed, Billy
escaped and went on the run
7. Murphy + the house went back to dominating Lincoln
county - he was eventually arrested for Tunstall's
death but was later cleared
8. No consequences for actions - lawlessness
continued into OK Corral


OK Corral key points

- Silver discovered in Arizona in 1877 - mining town of
- suffered from Lawlessness, like other mining towns
- rivalry between leading citizens + mine owners,
and small ranchers + outlaws
- attempt to tackle lawlessness - Virgil Earp hired as
lawman and then Town Marshal
- his brothers Wyatt and Morgan became deputy
Marshalls of Tombstone
- rivalry between the brothers and their friend Doc
Holliday and some of the cowboys
- One of cowboys (Ike) fined by judge and released for
firearm offences - met with gang for revenge
- Cowboys met in street with Earp and Holliday and a
gunfight ensued - lasted 30 seconds, 30 bullets were
- 3 of the cowboys died
- aftermath controversial - many people accused Earps
of murder, but they were never charged
- Virgil was ambushed and Morgan was killed. Wyatt
went after and killed more cowboys before leaving


what is third law and order event? and when was it?

Johnson county war, 1892


when was the Johnson County War?



Johnson County War key points

- conflict began in 1870s when huge cattle ranches were set up in Wyoming - began to take more and more land for their ranches
- hard winter 1886-87 so smaller ranches did better - larger ranches accused them of cattle rustling
- Homesteaders and smaller ranchers became annoyed at how the larger businesses grabbed everything for themselves
- cattle rustlers not often prosecuted - big ranchers wanted to take law into their own hands
- homesteader Jim Averil called big ranchers 'nothing but rich land grabbers', so Bothwell hung both Ella Watson and Jim Averil and took their land and cattle for himself
- larger cattlemen planned a full scale invasion of Johnson County to kill 70 men they suspected of rustling
- decided to attack a small ranch first and kill Nick Ray and his partner Nate Chapman - local sheriff and 319 men trapped cattlemen at a ranch. cattlemen eventually rescued by US Army cavalry
- cattlemen charged with murder. they bribed the jury and the case was dropped, but it still marked the end of the power of the cattle men - small businesses won


when was the civil war?



who won the civil war?

the north


importance of civil war:

- slavery abolished - exodusters in Kansas - led to
- slaves now freed - led to racism + KKK
- south had left cattle to breed freely during the war, meant south had an abundance of cattle, and north had the money - enabled cattle trade


where were exodusters moving from and to?

from texas to kansas


importance of exodusters?

led to migration


importance of racism?

meant black people lived in fear - fueled exoduster movement


importance of cattle?

enabled cattle trade


when was the Indian Appropriations Act?



what was the Indian Appropriations act?

moved Indians onto reservations


three importances of the Indian Appropriations Act?

caused conflict e.g. wars
removed freedom/way of life
increased reliance on government


Indian Appropriations Act (IAA) causing conflict detail

- wasn't upheld
- pushed indians and white americans into conflict
- reservations eventually cause much conflict, including Little Crow's War and the sandcreek massacre
- shows IAA important as it caused conflict - beginning of end for Indians


Indian Appropriations Act (IAA) removing freedom/way of life detail

- government aimed to limit indian life by forcing them onto reservations far from their sacred places and buffalo hunting grounds, and close to burial grounds
- no longer as much of a nomadic lifestyle
- reservations aimed to 'civilise' Indians by encouraging them to farm (no buffalo), go to school and become christians
- shows IAA was important as it began to oppress the Indians and force them to conform


Indian Appropriations Act (IAA) increasing reliance on government detail

- far from buffalo hunting grounds - could easily starve. - forced to rely more on american government for food
- encouraged to farm (no buffalo) but many of them didn't have the skills required
- shows importance of IAA as it took away the Indians' freedom and forced them to become reliant on the US Government


consequence 1 of the dawes act, 1887

- by 1890 Plains indians had lost half the land they had in 1887 to whites
- those that took up allotments often found it impossible to make a living farming on the plains - conditions too tough, soil too poor, not enough land
- most gave up, sold their land to whites and ended up landless
- those who kept it passed it onto their children, dividing the land up into smaller plots - made farming harder than before
- many plains indians cheated out of land by whites
- life for plains indians became harder, conditions even worse than before


consequence 2 of the dawes act, 1887

- plains indians lost their culture and way of life
- no longer nomadic - all the buffalo had been killed
- children were forced into american schools - taught to be like white americans.
- taught christianity
- forbidden from speaking own languages