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Flashcards in Amir sam 2 Deck (41)
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1

What are the atypical causes of pneumonia. (3)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Chlamydia pneumoniae.
Legionella pneumophila.

2

How is the diagnosis of coeliac confirmed.

Duodenal biopsy.

3

What is seen on a duodenal biopsy of a patient with coeliac disease.

Villous atrophy.

4

What are the causes of bloody diarrhoea. (5)

Infection (Infective colitis).
Inflammation (UC, Crohn's).
Ischaemia (Ischaemic colitis).
Malignancy.
Diverticulitis.

5

Name the clinical sign:
Dilated veins around the umbilicus.

Caput medusae.

6

What are some complications of portal hypertension. (4)

Encephalopathy.
Ascites.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
Variceal bleed.

7

What do you normally see on a blood test of a patient with DIC. (6)

Low platelets.
Low Fibrinogen.
High PT.
Hight APTT.
High D dimer.
High fibrin degradation products.

8

What do you normally see on a blood test of a patient with haemolytic ureamic syndrome. (4)

Low platelets.
Uraemia.
Low Hb.
High bilirubin.

9

What does the blood result suggest:
Low platelets.
Low Fibrinogen.
High PT.
Hight APTT.
High D dimer.
High fibrin degradation products.

DIC.

10

What does this blood result suggest:
Low platelets.
Uraemia.
Low Hb.
High bilirubin.

Haemolytic ureamic syndrome.

11

What are the typical manifestations of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. (3)

Haemolytic ureamic syndrome.
Fever.
Neurological manifestations.

12

What are the hereditary causes of haemolytic anaemia. (3)

Hereditary spherocytosis (defective RBC membrane).
G6PD deficiency (enzyme deficiency).
Haemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease, thalasseamias).

13

What are the acquired causes of haemolytic anaemia. (4)

Autoimmune.
Drugs.
Infection.
MAHA.

14

What are the three clinical subcategores of hyponatraemia. (3)

Hypovolaemic causes.
Euvolvaemic causes.
Hypervolvaemic causes.

15

What are the hypovolaemic causes of hyponatraemia. (3)

Diarrhoea.
Vomiting.
Diuretics.

16

What are the euvolaemic causes of hyponatraemia. (3)

Hypothyroidism.
Adrenal insufficiency.
SIADH.

17

What are the hypervolaemic causes of hyponatramia. (3)

Cardiac failure.
Cirrhosis.
Nephrotic syndrome.

18

What are the clinical tests for hyponatraemia caused by hypovolvaemia. (2)

Clinically hypovolaemic.
Low urine sodium.

19

What are the clinical tests for hyponatraemia due to euvolaemia. (3)

TFTs.
Short syncathen test.
Plasma and urine osmolality measure.

20

What are the clinical tests for hyponatraemia due to hypervolaemia. (2)

Fluid overload.
Low urine sodium.

21

What are most causes of hyponatraemia due to.

Due to increased ADH.

22

What are some rare causes of hyponatraemia. (2)

Excess water intake.
Sodium free irrigation solutions (eg used in TURP).

23

What are the causes of SIADH. (4)

CNS pathology.
Lung pathology.
Drugs (SSIR, TCA, opiates, PPIs, carbamazepine).
Tumours.

24

What are the causes of onycholysis. (4)

Trauma.
Thyrotoxicosis.
Fungal infection.
Psoriasis.

25

What are the microvascular complications of diabetes. (3)

Retinopathy.
Nephropathy.
Neuropathy.

26

What are the macrovascular complications of diabetes. (3)

MI.
Stroke.
PVD.

27

What are the metabolic complications of (3)

DKA.
HHS.
Hypoglycaemia.

28

What is the most appropriate investigation to look for:
Pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction.

CT-KUB.

29

What are the sources of alkaline phosphatase. (2)

Liver.
Bone.

30

What conditions cause an increase in alkaline phosphatase. (2)

Obstructive liver disease.
Bone disease (malignancy, fracture, Paget's disease).

31

What bone cells make alkaline phosphatase.

Osteoblasts.

32

What cells suppress osteoblasts.

Plasma cells.

33

What happens to alkaline phosphatase in myeloma.

ALP is normal.

34

What are the four aspects of multiple myeloma. (4)

Calcium.
Renal impairment.
Anaemia.
Bone.

35

What are the causes of a cavitating lung lesion. (4)

Infection.
Inflammation.
Infarction.
Malignancy.

36

What are the infective organisms that can cause a cavitating lung lesion. (3)

TB.
Staph.
Klebsiella (eg in alcoholics).

37

What is nephrotic syndrome.

Increased permeability of the glomelular basement membrane to protein.

38

What is raised in nephrotic syndrome.

Protein > 3g/day.

39

What is low in nephrotic syndrome.

Albumin.

40

What problem does nephrotic syndrome cause.

Oedema.

41

What is hereditary haemorrhagic telangiecstasia. (6)

Autosomal dominant condition.
Causes abnormal blood vessels in:
Skin.
Mucous membranes.
Lungs.
Liver.
Brain.