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Flashcards in ana surge 4 Deck (58):
1

Primary curvatures of the vertebral column

Thoracic and Sacral

2

Atypical cervical vertebrae

C1, C2, C7

3

Which cervical vertebrae has an odontoid process?

C2

4

Divided into 3 parts by scalenous anterior muscle

Subclavian artery

5

Vertebral level of hyoid bone

C3 - also bifurcation of common carotid artery

6

Vertebral level: thyroid cartilage

C5

7

Vertebral level: cricoid cartilage

C6 - also start of trachea and esophagus

8

Vertebral level: sternal angle of louie

T4 - also bifurcation of trachea

9

Vertebral level: hiatus of IVC

T8

10

Vertebral level: iliac crest

L4

11

Vertebral level: end of sigmoid colon

S3

12

Action: nodding and sideways tilting

Atlanto-Occipital joint

13

Action: turning head side to side, "no" gesture

Atlanto-Axial joint (C1 and C2)

14

Spinal cord is held in position by:

Denticulate ligaments on each side, Filum terminale inferiorly

15

Termination of spinal cord

Lower border of L1, upper border of L2

16

Sensory tract in the white matter of the spinal cord

Posterior horn - bodies of neurons are in the dorsal root ganglion

17

Motor tract in the white matter of the spinal cord

Anterior horn

18

Disease due to degeneration of anterior horn cells

Poliomyelitis

19

Anterior spinothalamic tract vs Lateral spinothalamic tract

Anterior - touch and pressure. Lateral - pain and temperature.

20

Ascending tract for position sense, 2 pt discrimination, fine discriminative sense, vibratory sense, stereognosis

Dorsal/Posterior Column - if already in brainstem, call it the medial lemniscus

21

Dermatome: tip of shoulder

C5

22

Dermatome: thumb

C6

23

Dermatome: middle finger

C7

24

Dermatome: small finger

C8

25

Dermatome: nipple

T4

26

Dermatome: umbilicus

T10

27

Dermatome: big toe

L4-L5

28

(+) swaying with eyes open

Cerebellar ataxia, (-) Romberg's sign

29

(+) swaying with eyes closed. Normal stance when eyes are open.

Sensory ataxia, (+) Romberg's sign

30

Definition of UMN

Descending pathways in the spinal cord

31

Definition of LMNs

Motor cells in the anterior gray horn of the SC and motor nuclei of cranial nerves - final common pathway for control of skeletal muscle activity

32

Where does the corticospinal tract decussate?

Lower medulla

33

Cavitation around the central canal of the spinal cord

Syringomyelia - loss of pain and temp sensations in hands and forearms, cape like distribution

34

Disease of anterior horn cells leading to LMN lesions

Poliomyelitis

35

Secondary degeneration of dorsal columns due to neurosyphilis

Tabes dorsalis - loss of vibration and position senses

36

Degeneration of anterior horn cells (LMN) and corticospinal tract (UMN)

ALS - pure motor disease

37

Degeneration of posterior and lateral columns due to Vit B12 deficiency

Subacute combined degeneration - loss of position sense and vibration in legs

38

Spinal cord hemisection: Brown Sequard's Syndrome

Contralateral loss of pain and temp, ipsilateral loss of propioception

39

Temporary loss of all cord functions below the level of the lesion in the SC

Spinal shock - <24 hours up to 1 to 4 weeks

40

Most severe type of spina bifida

Spina bifida with myeloschisis - area is open

41

Small dimple at the back with a tuft of hair. No clinical manifestations

Spina bifida occulta

42

Site of lumbar hernia

Lumbar Triangle of Petit - ext oblique abdom, lat dorsi, iliac crest

43

Forms a false capsule of the thyroid gland

Pretracheal layer of the cervical fascia

44

Contents of the carotid sheath

Common and internal carotid arteries , internal jugular vein, vagus nerve

45

This rib articulates with the sternum

2nd rib

46

Verterbral level: angle of louie

Between T4 and T5

47

Total number of ribs: 12 pairs

True ribs - 1 to 7. False ribs - 8 to 12. Floating ribs - 11 and 12.

48

Weakest point of the rib where fractures are common

Anterior to angle of the rib - 7 to 10 most commonly fractured

49

Compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus and subclavian artery/vein

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

50

Muscles that depress the ribs

Serratus posterior inferior, internal intercostal and transverse thoracis

51

Level the descending thoracic aorta becomes the abdominal aorta

T12

52

Distention of the veins of the neck on inspiration

Kussmaul's sign - cardiac tamponade

53

Common site of an occlusion in MI

Anterior interventricular artery from L coronary artery - supplies RV, interventriular septum and apex

54

Modified trabeculae carnae that crosses the interventricular septum

Moderator band - seen only at RV

55

Most posterior of the heart chambers

L atrium

56

Most common cause of cyanotic heart disease

Transposition of Great Arteries

57

Most common congenital anomaly associated with maternal rubella infection

PDA - aortic blood is shunted into the pulmonary artery

58

Tongue like extension beneath the cardiac notch

Lingula in the L lung - embryologic counterpart of R middle lobe