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Flashcards in Anaemia Deck (29):
1

Describe the lineage of pleuripotent cells?

Pleuripotent blood stem cell -
Myloid - RBC, platelets, myoblasts
Lymphoid stem cell - lymphblast - WBC

2

Where are blood cells produced?

Bone marrow

3

What is anaemia?

A reduction in one or more of the major RBC measurements causeing a decrease in the 02 carrying capacity of the blood and less 02 delivery to tissues
(obtained as part of FBC)

4

What is normal Hb levels?

130 -170 g/L M
120 - 150 g/L F

5

What is Htc?

Haematocrit
The % of the cell volume occupied by cells

6

Other than anaemia, when is Htc altered?

Acute bleed
Pregnancy - plasma volume increases in 3rd trimester so makes the Htc look comparatively low
Volume depletion - dehydration so Htc will look increase compared to plasma

7

What are the symptoms of anaemia?

MUSCULOSKELETAL - fatigue, tired, cramps
NEUROLOGICAL - dizzy, faint, lack concentration, blurred vision, insomnia, irritable, depressed
CVS - angina, SOB, palpitations, intermittent claudication, heart failure

8

What are the signs for anaemia?

pallor
increased HR
postural hypotension
cardiac failure
confusion

9

What are common signs of 4 specific anaemias?

Koilonychia (iron deficient) - spoon nails
Jaundice (haemolytic) - high bilirubini as RBC breakdown
Leg ulcers (sickle cell)
Bone deformities (thalassaemia)

10

What will show orally in an anaemic person?

Dry, smooth, red tongue
Angular chelitis
Ulcers
Candida

11

What is anaemia MCV?

mean corpuscular volume

12

What are the 3 types of anaemia MCV?

MICROCYTIC - small cell size due to ferritin deficiency or thallassaemia
NORMOCYTIC - due to haemorrhage or haemolytic
MACROCYTIC - megaloblastic - Vit 12 or folate deficiency, or non - megaloblastic - alcohol, liver disease, hypothyroidism, aplastic anaemia

13

What causes ferritin deficiency anaemia?

1) poor diet
2) low iron absorption (in duodenum) - affected by coeliacs, gastritis)
3) high physiological demand - infancy, puberty, pregnant
4) high blood loss - haemorrhage, haematemesis, melaena, haemoptysis, haematuria

14

What is common in ferritin deficient anaemia?

PICA
beeturia - 50% have red urine
Restless leg syndrome

15

How would you investigate ferritin deficient anaemia?

OGD
Colonoscopy

16

How would you treat ferritin deficient anaemia?

Treat underlying cause
Oral iron supplements
IV iron infusion

17

What is Vit B12?

A water soluble vitamin found in foods of animal origin

18

Where is Vit B12 absorbed?

Terminal ileum, but needs intrinsic factor to be absorbed

19

Where is intrinsic factor produced?

Gastric parietal cells

20

What causes Vit B12 deficieny?

Anything that decreases or damages parietal cells:
pernicious anaemia
gastrectomy
malabsorption (Crohns)

21

What else is common in Vit B12 deficient anaemia?

Premature grey hair
Jaundice
Skin pigmentation
Neuropathy

22

How would you treat Vit B12 deficient anaemia?

1mg hydroxycobalamin IM

23

What is folate?

Found in leafy green veg but is destroyed by cooking

24

What is the most common cause of folate deficient anaemia?

Dietary deficiency
Also:
alchohol
folic acid antagonists
malabsorption (Coeliacs)

25

What is a lack of folate in pregnancy linked to?

Neural tube defects of the baby

26

What is the treatment for folate deficient anaemia?

Treat underlying cause
DONT GIVE FOLATE SUPPLEMENTS WITHOUT KNOWING VIT B12 LEVELS

27

What is the cause of thalassaemia?

Abnormalities of globin chain synthesis

28

What is the cause of sickle cell anaemia?

Abnormalitis of globin chain structure

29

What is the cause of haemolytic anaemia?

RBC breakdown