Flashcards in Anaemia Guided Study - IMPORTANT Deck (31):
What must the level of haemoglobin be less than in order to be classed as anaemia (in males and females respectively)?
What are the normal ranges of RBC count in males and females respectively?
What are the normal ranges of haematocrit (Hct) in males and females respectively?
Other than low haemoglobin, low RBC count or low Hct percentage, what can also be a cause of anaemia (perhaps in the more spurious or relative sense)?
Haemodilution - too much plasma
What is the haematocrit (Hct)?
The ratio of volume of RBCs to the total blood volume
What is another, identical way to express haematocrit?
Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
List some symptoms of anaemia.
Tiredness & fatigue
Breathlessness on exertion
Worsening ischaemic symptoms
List some non-specific signs of anaemia.
Pale palmar creases
Signs of congestive heart failure (e.g. ankle swelling)
List some signs specific to iron deficiency anaemia.
Brittle nails & koilonychia
List some signs specific to vitamin B12 anaemia.
Jaundice is a tell-tale sign of what type of anaemia?
Leg ulcers are common in what type of anaemia?
Sickle cell disease based anaemia
A patient is presented with bone deformities - what type of anaemia base is most probable?
Thalassaemia major based anaemia
What happens to RBCs in haemolytic anaemia and what is the result of this?
Destruction of RBCs is higher than the normal rate resulting in increased circulating unconjugated bilirubin (causes yellow pigment seen in jaundice)
What level does bilirubin need to rise above in order to prom the onset of clinical jaundice?
Name the five main causes of anaemia and give examples of each.
Blood loss (acute haemorrhage, e.g. trauma)
Nutrient deficiency (iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency)
Chronic system disease (kidney failure or liver disease)
Immune disease (autoimmune haemolytic anaemia or transfusion reactions)
Infections (malaria, infectious mononucleosis)
What are the normal ranges for MCV, MCH & MCHC?
List some causes of low MCV (microcytic) anaemia.
Chronic blood loss
Low iron stores (due to dietary lack or malabsorption)
List some causes of normal MCV (normocytic) anaemia.
Acute blood loss
List some causes of high MCV (macrocytosis).
What is meant by pernicious anaemia?
Autoimmune disorder - gastric mucosa is atrophic and there is intrinsic factor deficiency, leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12.
What is meant by megaloblastic anaemia?
Anaemia caused by deficiency of Vitamin B12 or Folate (folic acid) which is only obtained through the diet or via supplements; this leads to RBCs not maturing and staying in the large, nucleated form of megaloblasts, leading to macrocytosis anaemia
What does microcytic hypochromic anaemia tell you?
Smaller than normal RBCs
MCHC is below normal range
What type of anaemia might acute haemorrhage lead to?
Normocytic normochromic anaemia
What type of anaemia might gradual chronic bleeding lead to?
Microcytic hypochromic anaemia
Where in the body is iron mainly stored?
The liver & the bone marrow
What type of anaemia results from iron deficiency regarding MCV?
What type of anaemia results from vitamin B12 deficiency regarding MCV?
What type of anaemia results from folate deficiency regarding MCV?
What type of MCV is characteristic of haemolytic anaemia?
Macrocytic due to the instant need for more RBCs - they are released from the bone marrow before fully mature