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Flashcards in Anatomy 3 Deck (36):
1

What week does the mesonephric duct/wolffian duct form? What layer does it form from?

the 4th week; intermediate mesoderm

2

What forms the genital ridge, and where does it form?

Primordial germ cells migrate from the yolk sac to the area adjacent to mesonephric kidney.

3

What is the other name for the pasamesonephric duct?

Mullerian duct

4

What do sertoli cells secrete?

testosterone and AMH

5

By what week is sex determined?

10

6

Where is testosterone produce and what reulgates its secretion?

Produced in leydig cells, secretion regulated by chorionic gonadotropin (placenta) and then the pituitary after week 16

7

What structures are formed because of dihydrotestosterone?

external: penis, scrotum, prostate, male urethra

8

What structures are made by testosterone?

seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, secondary sex characteristics

9

What happens if the paramesonephric ducts fail to fuse in the upper margins?

divided (septated) uterus

10

How would you get the formation of a double uterus/ double vagina?

if the paramesonephric ducts fuse to the urogenital sinus separately, two separate sinovaginal bulbs develop

11

What happens if the sinovaginal bulb does not develop a lumen?

atresia of the cervix

12

What happens if a mullerian duct regresses or fails to elongate?

unicornuate uterus

13

What does the labioscrotal swelling become in male and female?

scrotum/labia majora

14

What does the genital tubercle become in male and female?

clitoris/head of penis

15

what does the urogenital or urethral fold become in male and female?

penile urethra, or labia minor

16

What forms the urethra in the male?

urogenital fold becomes excavated, forming a urethral groove. urogenital folds move towards each other creating penile urethra

17

What is hypospadias?

when the urethra opens onto the ventral surfae of the penis because the urogenital folds dont fuse normally

18

what is epispadias?

when the urethra opens on the dorsal aspect of penis

19

What causes testicular hydrocele?

If the tunica vaginalis does not collapse, forming a pathway between the peritoneal cavity and tunica vaginalis that fills w/ serous secretions

20

Cryptorchidism

undescended testes

21

What is the gubernaculum become in the female?

broad ligament of the uterus (inferior part) and round ligament of the uterus (superior part)

22

Androgen insensitivity synrome

normal appearing female w/ undescended testes and 46xY

23

5a reductase deficiency

male gonads but female primary sex characteristics. but develop secondary characteristics during puberty (because testosterone works fine)

24

what layer does the urogenital system arise from?

the intermediate mesoderm

25

What are the three nephric structures?

pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros

26

What weeks are the mesonephroi functional?

6-12th week

27

what initially forms the metanephros?

uretric buds from IM

28

Where does the body of the kidney come from embryologically?

the metanephric blastema

29

Where does each structure come from?
Bowmans capsule
Distal/proximal tubule
loop of henle
collecting duct

first 3: from metanephric blastema

collecting duct=ureteric bud

30

what divides the cloaca

urorectal septum (forms a urogenital sinus and anorectal canal)

31

What forms the two parts of the male urethra? (prosttic and penile)

the pelvic urethra forms the prostatic urethra, the urogenital folds form the penile urethra

32

What is the trigone from embryologically?

the mesonephric ducts NOT the ureter/ureteric bud

33

What is the urachus?

the fibrous remnant of the allantois (narrowing above the bladder). forms the median fold in adult

34

What is a urachal sinus?

when the lumen in the urachus is patent. discharge out of umbilicus

35

What makes up the superficial inguinal ring and deep?

opening in the aponeurosis of external oblique and transversalis fascia

36

what spinal level does iliohypogastric come from?

L1