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Renal > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (51):
1

Level of the right kidney

L2

2

Level of left kidney

L1

3

Components of the renal hilum

Renal Artery
Renal Vein
Ureter

4

What muscles surround and protect the kidneys?

Anterolateral Abdominal Wall muscles
Posterior abdominal wall muscles
Back Muscles muscles

5

What are the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?

External and Internal oblique
Transversis Abdominis

6

Two posterior abdominal wall muscles?

Psoas Major
Quadratas Lumborum

7

Where does the renal artery branch from?

The abdominal aorta

8

Renal vein branches from where?

The inferior vena cava

9

These are in the retro-peritoneum?

Kidneys and Proximal Ureters

10

At what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?

Umbilicus

11

Blood supply to the ureter?

Branches from the abdominal aorta
Renal, common iliac, internal iliac and vesicle arteries

12

Occlusion of the proximal renal artery causes what?

Supra-renal cause of renal stenosis
(An AAA)

13

Atherosclerosis can lead to what?

Infra-renal renal stenosis

14

Common iliac arteries are anterior/posterior to common iliac veins?

Anterior

15

Lymph from kidneys drains where?

Lumbar nodes surrounding the AA and IVC

16

Lymph from the ureter drains to the...?

Lumbar and both common, internal and external iliac nodes

17

Where are the pyramids?

In the medulla of the kidneys

18

What is the role of the glomerulus?

Ultra filtration of the blood

19

These pass through the pyramid to drain filtrate into the minor calyx as urine?

The collecting ducts

20

What are renal calculi?

These are calcified stones formed from calcium salts obstructing the urinary tract
Tend to be visible on xray

21

What is Hydronephrosis?

Water inside kidney which causes urine back pressure, compressing nephrons within medullary pyramids
Acute hydronephrosis can cause painful stretches of renal capsules

22

What is the name of the muscle of the pelvic floor?

The levator ani

23

What is the main muscle forming the bladder bulk?

The detrusor muscle

24

Arteries entering the pelvis are mainly branches of what?

Internal Iliac Artery

25

Role of internal urethral sphincter muscle

To contract during ejaculation, preventing semen from getting to the bladder

26

Two options for catheterising a patient

Supra-pubically and urethrally

27

Sac in which the testes sit in

The tunica vaginalis

28

Role of pampiniform plexus

Drain all venous blood from testes to testicular vein

29

What is the cremaster muscle?

This is the muscle of the spermatic cord, responsible for partially raising the testicle

30

Excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis

Hydrocele

31

Glandular secretions from the prostate drain here

Prostatic urethra via prostatic ducts

32

What attaches to the ischium?

The root of the penis

33

Right and Left Corpus Cavernous

Transmit deep arteries of penis
Branches of internal pudendal artery

34

Lymph from scrotum (and most of penis) drains where?

Superficial inguinal lymph nodes

35

Where does lymph from testes drain?

Lumbar nodes

36

What is the nerve control to the internal urethra sphincter?

Parasympathetic
Sympathetic

37

What controls both the levator ani and the external urethral sphincter?

Somatic Motor Nerve fibres

38

Where do sympathetic nerves exit from?

Between T1 and L2 only

39

What are splanchnic nerves?

They carry spinal sympathetic nerve fibres to smooth muscle of the body

40

Where do sympathetic nerve fibres to the kidneys and and ureters exit and where do they synapse?

Exit between T11 and L2
Synapse at abdominal ganglia near the abdominal aorta

41

What is the name given to a collection of nerve fibres surrounding an artery?

Periarterial plexus

42

Which 4 cranial nerves carry parasympathetic nerve fibres?

CN III
CN VII
CN IX
CN X

43

What does the pudendal nerve come from?

Parasympathetic fibres from S2, 3 and 4

44

Where do parasympathetic nerve fibres exit spinal cord?

Sacral Spine Only

45

What does not innervate the smooth muscle of the body wall/

Parasympathetic nerve fibres

46

Where do visceral afferent nerves from kidneys originate and what does this mean?

T10 - L1
Pain is felt on dermatomes supplied by these

47

Why is testicular visceral afferent supply from T10 and 11?

Due to where the testes originate and descend from

48

What nerve fibres are key for micturation?

S2 - 4

49

What is the function of stretch receptors at the end of the visceral afferent nerves in the bladder/

Detect bladder filling and carry this info to the brain

50

What overrides the contraction reflex of the detrusor muscle?

Inhibitory fibres from the cortex of the brain

51

In what significant moment do sympathetic fibres cause the internal urethral sphincter to contract ?

During ejaculation