Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (51):
Level of the right kidney
Level of left kidney
Components of the renal hilum
What muscles surround and protect the kidneys?
Anterolateral Abdominal Wall muscles
Posterior abdominal wall muscles
Back Muscles muscles
What are the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?
External and Internal oblique
Two posterior abdominal wall muscles?
Where does the renal artery branch from?
The abdominal aorta
Renal vein branches from where?
The inferior vena cava
These are in the retro-peritoneum?
Kidneys and Proximal Ureters
At what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?
Blood supply to the ureter?
Branches from the abdominal aorta
Renal, common iliac, internal iliac and vesicle arteries
Occlusion of the proximal renal artery causes what?
Supra-renal cause of renal stenosis
Atherosclerosis can lead to what?
Infra-renal renal stenosis
Common iliac arteries are anterior/posterior to common iliac veins?
Lymph from kidneys drains where?
Lumbar nodes surrounding the AA and IVC
Lymph from the ureter drains to the...?
Lumbar and both common, internal and external iliac nodes
Where are the pyramids?
In the medulla of the kidneys
What is the role of the glomerulus?
Ultra filtration of the blood
These pass through the pyramid to drain filtrate into the minor calyx as urine?
The collecting ducts
What are renal calculi?
These are calcified stones formed from calcium salts obstructing the urinary tract
Tend to be visible on xray
What is Hydronephrosis?
Water inside kidney which causes urine back pressure, compressing nephrons within medullary pyramids
Acute hydronephrosis can cause painful stretches of renal capsules
What is the name of the muscle of the pelvic floor?
The levator ani
What is the main muscle forming the bladder bulk?
The detrusor muscle
Arteries entering the pelvis are mainly branches of what?
Internal Iliac Artery
Role of internal urethral sphincter muscle
To contract during ejaculation, preventing semen from getting to the bladder
Two options for catheterising a patient
Supra-pubically and urethrally
Sac in which the testes sit in
The tunica vaginalis
Role of pampiniform plexus
Drain all venous blood from testes to testicular vein
What is the cremaster muscle?
This is the muscle of the spermatic cord, responsible for partially raising the testicle
Excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis
Glandular secretions from the prostate drain here
Prostatic urethra via prostatic ducts
What attaches to the ischium?
The root of the penis
Right and Left Corpus Cavernous
Transmit deep arteries of penis
Branches of internal pudendal artery
Lymph from scrotum (and most of penis) drains where?
Superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Where does lymph from testes drain?
What is the nerve control to the internal urethra sphincter?
What controls both the levator ani and the external urethral sphincter?
Somatic Motor Nerve fibres
Where do sympathetic nerves exit from?
Between T1 and L2 only
What are splanchnic nerves?
They carry spinal sympathetic nerve fibres to smooth muscle of the body
Where do sympathetic nerve fibres to the kidneys and and ureters exit and where do they synapse?
Exit between T11 and L2
Synapse at abdominal ganglia near the abdominal aorta
What is the name given to a collection of nerve fibres surrounding an artery?
Which 4 cranial nerves carry parasympathetic nerve fibres?
What does the pudendal nerve come from?
Parasympathetic fibres from S2, 3 and 4
Where do parasympathetic nerve fibres exit spinal cord?
Sacral Spine Only
What does not innervate the smooth muscle of the body wall/
Parasympathetic nerve fibres
Where do visceral afferent nerves from kidneys originate and what does this mean?
T10 - L1
Pain is felt on dermatomes supplied by these
Why is testicular visceral afferent supply from T10 and 11?
Due to where the testes originate and descend from
What nerve fibres are key for micturation?
S2 - 4
What is the function of stretch receptors at the end of the visceral afferent nerves in the bladder/
Detect bladder filling and carry this info to the brain
What overrides the contraction reflex of the detrusor muscle?
Inhibitory fibres from the cortex of the brain