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Flashcards in Anatomy&Histology Deck (76):
1

INSPIRATORY MUSCLES Rib elevators:

external intercostal muscles

2

Muscles attaching cervical vertebrae to first & second rib:

scalene muscles

3

Muscles attaching thoracic cage to upper limb

pectoralis major

4

ORIGIN OF DIAPHRAGM Costal

lower 6 costal cartilages

5

ORIGIN OF DIAPHRAGM Sternal

xiphoid process of sternum

6

ORIGIN OF DIAPHRAGM Vertebral

upper 3 lumbar vertebrae
(right & left crus + arcuate ligaments)

7

DIAPHRAGM nerve supply

phrenic nerve (C3,4,5),

8

DIAPHRAGM action

contraction (descent) of diaphragm increase vertical diameter of thoracic cavity

9

EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL Attachments:

from lower border of rib above to upper border of rib below

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EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL Nerve supply:

intercostal nerves

11

EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL Action:

rib elevators (inspiratory)

12

EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL Direction of fibers:

downward & medially

13

SCALENE MUSCLES
Origin:
Insertion :
Action:

cervical vertebrae
1st & 2nd ribs
elevates 1st & 2nd ribs (inspiratory)

14

PECTORALIS MAJOR
Origin:
Insertion:
Action:

Origin: sternum + costal cartilages
Insertion: humerus
Action: increases antero-posterior diameter of thoracic cavity, when arm is fixed (inspiratory)

15

EXPIRATORY MUSCLES Rib depressors

Internal intercostal
Innermost intercostal
Subcostals
Transversus thoracis

16

EXPIRATORY MUSCLES Anterior abdominal wall muscles:

External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Rectus abdominis

17

RIB DEPRESSORS: REST OF INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES
Direction:
Nerve supply:

Direction: upward & medially
Nerve supply: intercostal nerves (ventral rami of T1-T11)

18

External oblique (outer layer) Direction:

Direction: downward & medially

19

Internal oblique (middle layer)
Direction:

Direction: upward & medially

20

Transversus abdominis (inner layer) Direction:

Direction: transverse

21

Rectus abdominis Direction:

Direction: vertical

22

VESTIBULE Lining

Lining: is lined with thin skin.
1- Epidermis: (Keratinized stratified Squamous epithelium).
2- Dermis.

23

VESTIBULE Contents:

Contents:
1- Vibrissae: stiff hairs.
2- Sebaceous glands.
3- Sweat glands.

24

VESTIBULE Wall:

Wall:
1- Hyaline cartilage.
2- Cancellous (spongy) bone.

25

MUCOSA (MUCOUS MEMBRANE): (A) Respiratory Epithelium:

Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar
epithelium with goblet
cells.

26

MUCOSA (MUCOUS MEMBRANE): Main Types of cells ( all touch the basement membrane)

1- Ciliated columnar cells.
2- Goblet cells.
3- Basal cells: are stem cells.
4- DNES cells: e.g. serotonin.

27

MUCOSA (MUCOUS MEMBRANE): (B) Lamina propria ( Sub-epithelial C.T.):
contains:

(B) Lamina propria ( Sub-epithelial C.T.):
contains:
1- Large arterial plexuses &
venous sinuses
(Highly vascularized C.T.)
3- Many seromucous glands (acini).
4- Abundant lymphoid elements:
Including occasional lymphoid nodules,
plasma cells & mast cells.

28

PARANASAL SINUSES Lining":

Lining: 1- Respiratory epith. (Mention…….)
2- Lamina propria

29

PARANASAL SINUSES CLINICAL APPLICATION:

CLINICAL APPLICATION:
Sinusitis.

30

OLFACTORY REGION (AREA) OF NASAL CAVITY(OLFACTORY MUCOSA) Site:

Site: 1-Roof of nasal cavity.
2-Upper part of nasal septum.
3-over superior concha.

31

OLFACTORY REGION Structure:

Structure:
A- Olfactory epithelium:
Pseudo-stratified columnar epith.
1- Olfactory cells (olfactory nerve cells)
2- Sustentacular (supporting) cells.
3- Basal cells: Pyramidal in shape,
basal in position and act as stem cells.

32

OLFACTORY REGION Structure:

(B) Lamina propria: contains:
1- Highly (richly) vascularized loose C.T.
2- Contents:
a) Bowman’s glands ( olfactory glands) : are serous acini.
b) Bundles of unmyelinated nerve fibers:
Are axons of olfactory nerve cells + Schwann-like cells (glial cells).
c) Rich vascular plexus.
d) Numerous lymphoid elements.

33

OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM 1- Olfactory cells:

1- Olfactory cells:
Are bipolar neurons
Dendrite has olfactory vesicle that has nonmotile cilia.
Axons are unmyelinated with Schwann-like cells.
Axons will collect in the lamina propria to form
bundles of nerve fibers.
Bundles will collect to
form the olfactory nerve.

34

OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM 2- Sustentacular (supporting) cells:

2- Sustentacular (supporting) cells:
Are columnar cells.
Function:
Physical support and nourishment for olfactory cells.

35

LARYNX Mucosa:

Mucosa:
1- Epithelium: (2 types)
a- Respiratory epithelium:
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
with goblet cells.
b- Non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium:
In: -Vocal folds.
- Superior surface of epiglottis
2- Lamina propria.

36

LARYNX Mucosa: cont

There are 2 pairs of shelf-like mucosal folds:
1- Vestibular folds:
Are immovable.
L/M: a- Respiratory epithelium.
b- Lamina propria:
Loose C.T. with seromucous glands
lymphoid elements & adipose cells.
2- VOCAL FOLDS (CORDS): have:
a- Epithelium: non keratinized stratified squamous.
b- Lamina propria: C.T. containing bundles of elastic fibers and skeletal muscle .
N.B. No lymphoid nodules,
No seromucous glands.

37

LARYNX

(A) Mucosa (Mucous membrane ):
1- Epithelium.
2- Lamina propria.
(B) Cartilages:
1- Hyaline cartilages:
e.g. Thyroid cartilage.

2- Elastic cartilages:
Epiglottis.

(C) Muscles: all are skeletal.
(D) Ligaments.

38

TRACHEA The wall of trachea is formed of:

The wall of trachea is formed of:
Mucosa.
Submucosa.
Adventitia.

39

MUCOSA OF TRACHEA

Epithelium: Respiratory epithelium
Lamina propria.

Elastic lamina:
It is formed of elastic fibers.
It separates lamina propria from submucosa

40

SUBMUCOSA OF TRACHEA Contents:

Contents:
1- C.T.
2- Numerous mucous & seromucous glands.
3- Lymphoid elements.

41

ADVENTITIA OF TRACHEA Contents:

Contents:
1- Fibroelastic C.T.
2- C-shaped rings (12-16) of hyaline cartilage.
Trachealis muscle (bundle of smooth muscle fibers) connects the 2 ends of each C-shaped (incomplete) rings of cartilage.

42

EXTRAPULMONARY BRONCHUS(1ry BRONCHUS)

Generally have the same histological appearance as the trachea.

43

INTRAPULMONARY BRONCHI(2ry & 3ry BRONCHI)

1- Mucosa.
2- Muscle coat.
3- Submucosa.
4- Adventitia.

44

INTRAPULMONARY BRONCHUS

(1) Mucosa:
a- Epithelium: Respiratory epith.
b- Lamina propria.
N.B. No elastic lamina.

(2) Muscle coat (complete):
Two distinct layers of smooth muscle fibers spirally arranged in opposite direction.

(3) Submucosa:
C.T. contains:
a- Seromucous glands.
b- Lymphoid elements.



(4) Adventitia:
Contents: a- Loose C.T.
b- Irregular plates of hyaline
cartilage (complete layer).
c- Solitary lymphoid nodules.

45

BRONCHIOLES

1- Preterminal ( 1ry ) Bronchioles (Bronchioles):
Are less than 1mm in diameter.

2- Terminal ( 2ry ) Bronchioles.
3- Respiratory ( 3ry ) Bronchioles.

46

Preterminal Bronchioles (1) Mucosa:

(1) Mucosa: has longitudinal folds:
A- Epithelium:
Simple ciliated columnar epith.
with occasional goblet cells.


B- Lamina propria: C.T. rich in elastic fibers.

47

Preterminal Bronchioles (2) Smooth muscle :

(2) Smooth muscle: 2 helically arranged smooth muscle layers.

48

Preterminal Bronchioles (3) Adventitia:

(3) Adventitia: C.T.
N.B. No cartilage, No seromucous glands, No lymph
nodules.

49

Terminal Bronchioles

Similar structure to preterminal bronchioles, but:
Epithelium:
Simple cuboidal partially ciliated epithelium
With Clara cells ( With NO goblet cells).
N.B. Are less than 0.5mm in diameter.

50

Respiratory Bronchioles

Are similar in structure to terminal bronchioles But: their walls are interrupted by the presence of few pulmonary alveoli.

51

CLARA CELLS

Structure:
columnar cells (non ciliated).

Function:
1- Degrade toxins in inhaled air.
2- Divide to regenerate the bronchiolar epith.
3- Produce surfactant-like material.

52

ALVEOLAR DUCTS

The wall of alveolar ducts consist almost of
pulmonary alveoli.

N.B. Alveolar duct → ends by: atrium →
communicates with: 2-3 alveolar sacs

53

PULMONARY ALVEOLI

Definition:
They are small out-pouching of respiratory
bronchioles, alveolar ducts & alveolar sacs.
Topics:
*Interalveolar septa.
*Alveolar epithelium.
* Alveolar phagocytes
(Lung macrophages).

54

INTERALVEOLAR SEPTA

Definition:
The region between 2 adjacent alveoli.

Components:
Alveolar Epithelium:
lines both sides of interalveolar septum.
(B) Interstitium.

55

ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM

(1) Type I Pneumocytes

(2) Type II Pneumocytes



56

ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM Type I Pneumocytes:

Type I Pneumocytes:
- line 95% of the alveolar surface.
- Count: less numerous than type II pneumocytes.
- L/M: simple squamous epith.

-Function:
Exchange of gases.

57

ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM Type Il Pneumocytes:

(2) Type II Pneumocytes:
Line 5% of the alveolar surfaces.
Are more numerous than type I pneumocytes.
- Are cuboidal or rounded cells, With Foamy cytoplasm.
Nucleus: central & rounded.
- The cytoplasm contains membrane-
bound Lamellar bodies
(contain pulmonary surfactant).



58

Type Il Pneumocytes: function :

Function:
1- Synthesis & secretion of pulmonary surfactant.

2- Renewal of alveolar epithelial cells:
Type II cells can divide to regenerate both type I & type II pneumocytes.

59

Interstitium of interalveolar septa

(1) Continuous Pulmonary Capillaries.

(2) Interstitial C.T.:
a- C.T. Fibers: elastic fibers &
type III collagen (reticular fibers).
b- C.T. Cells: Fibroblasts, Macrophages,
Mast cells, Lymphocytes.


60

BLOOD-GAS BARRIER(BLOOD-AIR BARRIER) Definition:

Definition:
It is the region of the interalveolar septum that is traversed by O2 & CO2

61

BLOOD-GAS BARRIER(BLOOD-AIR BARRIER) Components:

Components:
1- Thin layer of surfactant.
2- Type I pneumocyte.
3- Fused basal laminae of type I pneumocytes &
endothelial cells of the pulmonary capillary.
4- Endothelial cells of the pulmonary capillary.

62

Alveolar phagocytes (Alveolar Macrophages) (Dust Cells) Sites:

Sites:
In the lumen of pulmonary alveoli.
In the interstitium of interalveolar septa.

63

Alveolar phagocytes (Alveolar Macrophages) (Dust Cells) Function:

Function:
Phagocytose particulate matter (e.g. dust) & bacteria in the lumen of pulmonary alveoli and in the interstitium of interalveolar septa.

64

Pleura

Is formed of two layers:Parietal and visceral.It is formed of simple squamous mesothelium. The two layers are separated by serous fluid. The visceral layer has sub-epithelium loose C.T that extends into the lung tissue

65

Nose
The external (anterior) nares or
nostrils, lead to the nasal cavity.
Formed above by:
Formed below by:

Formed above by: Bony skeleton
Formed below by plates of
hyaline cartilage

66

Nasal Cavity.
Roof :

Narrow & formed (from behind to forward) by: 1. Body of sphenoid.
2. Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone.
3. Frontal bone.
4. Nasal bone & cartilage

67

Nasal Cavity.
Lateral Wall :

Lateral Wall
Shows three horizontal bony projections, the superior, middle &
inferior conchae*
The cavity below each concha is called a meatus and are named as
superior, middle & inferior meatus corresponding to the conchae.
The small space above the superior concha and below the roof is
the sphenoethmoidal recess.
The conchae increase the surface area of the nasal cavity.
The recess & meati receive the openings of the: Paranasal sinuses
and Nasolacrimal duct. (will be discussed later)

68

Nasal Cavity.
Medial Wall (Nasal Septum)

Medial Wall (Nasal Septum)
Osteocartilaginous partition.
Formed by:
1. Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone.
2. Vomer.
3. Septal cartilage

69

Nasal Cavity.
Floor :

Separates it (nasal cavity) from the
oral cavity.
Formed by the hard (bony) palate


Note:
There are 2 palates: a soft palate and a
hard palate

70

Respiratory mucosa, nasal cavity

The air is moistened by the secretion of numerous serous
glands.
It is cleaned by the removal of the dust particles by the
ciliary action of the columnar ciliated epithelium that covers the mucosa.
The air is warmed by a submucous venous plexus.
Vestibule is lined by Skin

71

Nasal Cavity
Nerve supply

Olfactory mucosa supplied by olfactory nerves
(speacial sensation).
-Nerves of general sensation are derived from:
o Ophthalmic nerve
o Maxillary nerve.
o Anterior ethemoidal nerve.
o Autonomic fibers:
Nasal, nasopalatine and palatine branches of
the ptergopalatine ganglion

72

Nasal Cavity
Arterial Supply:

Arterial Supply:
-Branches of the:
o Maxillary: sphenopalatine artery
o Facial: superior labial artery
o Ophthalmic: ethmoidal arteries.
-The arteries make a rich anastomosis in the region of the vestibule,
and anterior portion of the septum

73

Nasal Cavity
Venous Drainage:

Venous Drainage:
Submucosal plexus by veins
accompany the arteries
which drain into the:
o Facial vein
o Ophthalmic vein
o Spheno-palatine vein

74

Nasal Cavity
Lymphatic Drainage:

Lymphatic Drainage:
The lymphatics from the:
o Vestibule drains into the
submandibular lymph nodes.
o Rest of the cavity drains into the
upper deep cervical lymph nodes

75

Paranasal Sinuses

Functions :
1- Lighten the weight of the skull.
2- Act as resonant chambers for speech.
3- Air conditioning: The respiratory mucosal lining helps in warming, cleaning
and moistening the incoming air

76

Paranasal Sinuses
opening - sinus

Opening - Sinus
Spheno-ethmoidal recess - sphenoidal sinus
Superior meatus - posterior ethmoidal sinus
Middle meatus - middle ethmoidal, anterior ethmoidal , maxillary, and frontal sinuses
Inferior meatus - nasolacrimal duct.

(carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity)