Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

AVS 109 > Anatomy & Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Deck (67):
1

What is physiology?

body and organ function

2

What is the average temperature for animals?

101-102 degrees

3

Abduction

movement away from the median plane

4

Adduction

movement toward the median plane

5

Anterior

toward the front of the body

6

Posterior

the back surface of the body

7

Caudal

towards the tail

8

Cranial

toward the head

9

Cutaneous

relating to the skin

10

Dorsal

pertaining to the back or the upper surface of the animal

11

Ventral

away from the back or top line of the body

12

Extension

straightening of the limbs and vertebral column

13

Flexion

bending of the limbs at the joints, and bending of the vertebral column

14

Lateral

away from the median plane

15

Medial

toward the medial plane

16

Median plane

through the midline of the body, divides the body into right and left halves

17

Sagittal

situated in or being the median plane or any plane parallel to the median plane

18

Process

a projection or outgrowth

19

Proximal

usually applied to the limbs, toward the attached portion or major body mass

20

Distal

farthest from the major body mass

21

Superficial

toward the surface

22

Transverse

a plane across the body at right angles to the median plane

23

Infra or sub

below or beneath

24

Supra

above or super

25

Inter

between

26

Intra

within

27

What is skin?

Exterior covering of body
Continuous with exterior of respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts

28

What is the epidermis?

outer layer of epithelial cells

29

What is the dermis?

connective tissue, blood vessels, lymph, nerves, glands, hair follicles.

30

What are the functions of skin?

Protection
Temperature regulation
Responds to environment (sensory nerves)
Secretion and excretion

31

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

Protection
Provides rigidity and for (support)
Act as levers
Store minerals
Site for red blood cell formation

32

What does tarsal refer to?

Hind

33

What does carpal refer to?

Front

34

What two bones are fused together?

Radius and Ulna

35

What is the muscle that lies between the rib?

Intercostal muscle

36

What does intra mean?

within

37

What does inter mean?

between

38

Where is a ball and socket joint located?

shoulder, hip

39

Where is a hinged joint located?

elbow

40

Where is a pivot joint located?

neck

41

Where is a glide joint located?

vertebrae

42

What is the name for red blood cells?

Erythrocytes

43

What is the function of red blood cells?

carry oxygen and CO2

44

What does the nervous system do?

carries signals from sensory organs to the brain and signals from the brain to muscles and tissues

45

What does the central nervous system consist of?

Brian and spinal cord

46

What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?

Cranial and spinal nerves

47

What is a nerve cell?

Neuron

48

What receives signals from adjacent cells?

Dendrites

49

What carries the signal along the length of the cell via action potential?

Axon

50

What holds neurotransmitters to communicate with the dendrites of the next neuron?

Terminal bulb

51

What is a synapse?

the space between the dendrites of one cell and terminal bulbs of the next

52

What type of control does skeletal muscle have?

Voluntary

53

What type of control does cardiac muscle have?

Involuntary

54

What type of control does smooth muscle have?

Involuntary

55

What type of banding does skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle have?

Skeletal-Striated
Cardiac-Striated
Smooth-non-striated

56

What type of shape does skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle have?

Skeletal-threadlike
Cardiac-branched
Smooth-various

57

What type of nuclei does skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle have?

Skeletal- multinucleated
Cardiac-mononucleated
Smooth- mononucleated

58

What are arteries?

thick vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood

59

What are veins?

return vessels

60

What are capillaries?

thin-walled vessels

61

What is systemic circulation?

moves oxygenated blood to body and returns venous (deoxygenated) blood to heart

62

What is pulmonary circulation?

veins carry oxygenated blood

63

What is fasciculi?

bundles of muscle fibers

64

What are myofibrils?

long, thin, cylindrical rods
a site of force production within muscle fibers

65

What are myofilaments?

protein filaments of the myofibril

66

What is a sarcomere?

Smallest functional contractile unit

67

What are the steps for muscle contraction?

1) Signal from nerve
2) Action potential spreads along sarcolemma and t tubules into the interior of fiber
3) Calcium release from terminal cisternae
4) Calcium binds the protein Troponin C, a change in protein complex
5) Cessation of signal Ca++ release ceases
6) Ca++ pumped into sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle relaxes.