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Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Deck (77):
1

body planes

-cut along the median plane is a sagittal section
-cut along the transverse plane is a cross-section
-cut along the coronal plane is a frontal section

2

anatomic position

-body is erect
-feet are slightly apart
-head is held high
-palms are facing forward

3

Histology

the study of tissues

4

tissue

a group of cells that act together to perform specific functions
- 4 fundamental tissues: epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue

5

epithelial cells

cover, line and protect the body and its internal organs

6

connective tissue

the framework of the body, providing support and structure for the organs

7

nerve tissue

composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to as neuroglia

8

muscle tissue

classified as voluntary muscle (skeletal muscles) or involuntary (smooth and cardiac muscle tissue)

9

cell

-the basic unit of life and he building block of tissues and organs
-within the cell each organelle has its own function

10

mitosis

-necessary for growth and repair
-DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to two daughter cells

11

meiosis

-takes place in the gonads (ovaries and testes)
-the chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23
-when egg and sperm unite in fertilization, the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes

12

epidermis

- the outermost protective layer made of dead, keratinized epithelial cells
-layers (outer to inner): stratum corneum, the stratum lucidum, the stratum granulosum, and the inner most stratum germinativum (stratum basale and stratum spinosum) (where mitosis occurs)
-epidermal cells contain the protein pigment melanin, which protects against radiation from the sun

13

dermis

-the underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings and the associated skin structures
-rest on the subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the superficial muscles
-inner layer of skin is the dermis, composed of fibrous connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands

14

sweat glands

-2 types
-regulate body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin, known as an eccrine gland
- armpits and groin area are from the apocrine secretion. contains bits of the cytoplasm from the secreting cell
-attracts bacteria and bacteria on the skin causes body odor

15

sebaceous glands

-release an oily secretion (sebum) through the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and prevents drying.
-sebum is produced by holocrine secretion

16

functions of the skeletal system

support, movement, blood cell formation (hemopoiesis), protection of internal organs, detoxification (removal of poisons), provision for muscle attachment, and mineral storage (calcium and phosphorus)

17

long bone

-has an irregular epiphysis at each end, composed of mainly spongy bone (cancellous) bone, and a shaft or diaphysis, composed mainly of compact bone

18

osteoblast

-cells that form compact bone
-when they become fixed in the dense bone matrix, they stop dividing but continue to maintain bone tissue as osteocytes

19

axial skeleton

-consist of the skull, vertebral column, 12 pairs of ribs, and sternum
-including the 6 paired bones of the ear., the skull is comprised of 28 bones
-14 facial bones, 14 cranial vault bones
-facial bones include, 2 maxillary, 2 zygomatic bones, one mandible (the only moveable bone of the skull), 2 palatines, one vomer, 2 lacrimal and 2 inferior nasal conchae
-bones of the cranium are the single occipital, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid and the paired parietal, temporal, and ossicles of the ear (malleus, incus and stapes)

20

facial bones

facial bones include, 2 maxillary, 2 zygomatic bones, one mandible (the only moveable bone of the skull), 2 palatines, one vomer, 2 lacrimal and 2 inferior nasal conchae

21

cranial bones

bones of the cranium are the single occipital, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid and the paired parietal, temporal, and ossicles of the ear (malleus, incus and stapes)

22

vertebral column

- divided into 5 subsections
-7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral vertebrae (which fuse to for the sacrum) and the coccygeal vertebrae (known as the tailbone)

23

appendicular skeleton

-includes the girdles and the limbs
-upper portion includes pectoral or shoulder girdle, the clavicle and scapula and the upper extremity
-bones of the arm are the humerus, the radius and ulna, carpals (wrist bones), the metacarpals (bones of the hand) and the phalanges (bones of the fingers)
-lower portion includes the pelvic girdle or os coxae
-each os coxae consist of fused ilium, ischium and pubis
-bones of the lower extremity include the femur (thighbone), the tibia and fibula, the tarsals (ankle bones), the metatarsals (ones of the foot) and the phalanges

24

muscular system

-muscles produce movement by contracting in response to nervous stimulation
-muscle contraction results from the sliding together of actin and myosin filaments within the muscle cell or fiber

25

myofibrils

-each muscle cell consists of myofibrils, which in turn are made up of smaller units called sarcomeres

26

muscle contraction

-calcium and ATP must be present for a muscle to contract

27

voluntary muscles

-they are under conscious control
-skeletal muscles work in pairs; the muscle that executes a given movement is the prime mover, whereas the muscle that produces the opposite movement is the antagonist
-other muscles known as the synergist may work in cooperation with the prime mover

28

flexor vs. extensor muscles

-reduce the angle at the joint
- increase the angle

29

abductor vs. adductor muscles

- draw a limb away from the midline
- return the limb back towards the body

30

nervous system

- consist of the brain, spinal cord and nerves
-this system enables us to perceive many of the changes that take place in our external and internal environments and to respond to those changes
-makes body movements by skeletal muscles possible by supplying them with nerve impulses that cause contraction
-works closely with endocrine glands, correlating and integrating body functions such as digestion and reproduction

31

parts of a neuron

- cell body, axon, and dendrites

32

dendrites (neuron)

- transmit the impulse toward the cell body and axons transmit the impulse away from the cell body

33

central nervous system

-compromised of the spinal cord and brain
-sensory (afferent) neurons transmit nerve impulses toward the CNS
-motor (efferent) neurons transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS toward the effector organs such as muscles, glands and digestive organs

34

peripheral nervous system

- all other neurons in the body

35

major parts of the brain (NS)

- cerebrum (movement and sensory input)
- cerebellum (muscular coordination
-medulla oblongata (controls many vital functions such as respiration and heart rate

36

spinal cord (NS)

-18 inches long and extends from the base of the skull (foramen magnum) to the first or second lumbar vertebrae (L1 or L2)
-31 pairs of spinal nerves exit the spinal cord
-simple (spinal) reflexes are those in which nerve impulses travel through the spinal cord only and do not reach the brain

37

endocrine system

-assist the NS in homeostasis
-plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation
-2 systems meet at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
- the hypothalamus governs the pituitary and is in turn controlled by the feedback of hormones in the blood

38

endocrine and nervous system

- they coordinate and control the body, but ES has a more long-lasting and widespread effects

39

hormones

-are chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation and metabolism of specific target cells
-2 major groups;
1. steroids- enter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus
2. non-steroid hormones- some are protein hormones( many of these remain at the cell surface and act through a second messenger, usually a substance called AMP
-most hormones affect cell activity by altering the rate of protein synthesis

40

pituitary gland

- master gland
-attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum
-2 major portions
1. the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
-these hormones are called tropic hormones because they act mainly on other endocrine glands
-STH or GH
-ACTH
-TSH
-FSH
LH
2. posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
-hormones released from here are oxytocin (the labor hormone) and ADH
-other endocrine glands include the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas and gonads

41

whole blood consist of:

-55% plasma and 45% formed elements: erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC) and platelets
-all of the formed elements are produced from stem cells in red bone marrow

42

erythrocytes (RBC, circulatory system)

-are modified for transport of oxygen
-most of this oxygen is bound to the pigmented protein hemoglobin

43

leukocytes

-5 types
-distinguished on the basis of size, appearance of the nucleus, staining properties, and presence or absence of visible cytoplasmic granules
-WBC are active in phagocytosis (neutrophils and monocytes) and antibody formation (lymphocytes)

44

platelets

-are active in the process of blood clotting

45

Blood

-serves to transport oxygen and nutrients to body cells and to carry away carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes

46

plasma

contains 10% proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products, and hormones, which are dissolved or suspended in water

47

heart (blood flow)

- is a double pump that sends blood to the lungs for oxygenation thru the pulmonary circuit and to the remainder of the body thru the systemic circuit
- blood is received by the atria and is pumped into circulation by the ventricles
-valves between the atria and ventricles include the tricuspid on the right and bicuspid on the left of the heart
- semilunar valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk and the aorta
-blood is supplied to the heart muscles (myocardium) by the coronary arteries
- blood drains from the myocardium directly into the right atrium through the coronary sinus

48

heart beat

-has an intrinsic beat initiated by the sinoatrial node and transmitted along a conduction system through the myocardium
-wave of electrical activity is measured by an ECG
- cardiac cycle is the period from one end of the ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction
-contraction phase is systole and relaxation phase is diastole

49

capillaries

- the smallest of the vessels, are where the exchanges of water, nutrients and waste products take place between the blood and surrounding tissues

50

systemic arteries

-begins with the aorta which sends branches to all parts of the body
-as arteries get farther away from the heart, the become thinner
-the smallest arteries are arterioles
-veins are parallel to arteries and are named the same
-superior and inferior venae cavea are the large veins that empty into the right atrium of the heart

51

vasoconstriction and vasodilation

- results from contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial walls
-these changes influence blood pressure and blood distribution to the tissues
-walls of the veins are thinner and less elastic, they

52

arteries vs. veins

- walls of the arteries are thick and elastic and they carry blood under high pressure
- walls of the veins are thinner and less elastic than those of the arteries and they carry blood under lower pressure

53

components of the respiratory system

- nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs with their alveoli, diaphragm and muscles surrounding the ribs
-respiration is controlled by the respiratory control center in the medulla of the brain

54

respiratory system

-supplies oxygen to the body and eliminated carbon dioxide
-passageways between the nasal cavities and the alveoli conduct gases to and from the lungs
-the upper passageways also serve to warm, filter, and moisten incoming air
-the upper respiratory tubules are lined with cilia that help to trap debris and keep foreign substances from entering the lungs

55

external respiration

-the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli

56

internal respiration

-the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells

57

inhalation

-requires contraction of the diaphragm to enlarge the thoracic cavity and draw air into the lungs

58

exhalation

- is a passive process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the thorax decreases in size

59

oxygen

-most of the oxygen carried in the blood is bound to hemoglobin in RBC
-O is released from hemoglobin as the concentration of O drops in the tissues
-some carbon dioxide is carried in solution or bound to blood proteins, but most is converted to bicarbonate ions by carbonic anhydrase within RBCs
-because this reaction also releases H ions, carbon dioxide is a regulator of blood pH

60

Urinary System

-consist of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
-

61

Urinary system: kidneys

-filter the blood
-functional units are the nephrons
- they are small coiled tubes that filter waster material out of the blood brought to the kidney by the renal artery
-actual filtration process occurs through the glomerulus in Bowman's capsule of the nephron
-filtration of the blood occurs through the glomerulus under the force of blood pressure
-as the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron, components needed by the body, such as water, glucose and ions leave the nephron by diffusion and reenter the blood
-water is reabsorbed at the tubules of the nephron
-final product produced by the millions of nephrons per kidney is urine

62

Urinary system: ureters

- are tubes that transport urine to the urinary bladder, where urine is stored before urination through the urethra to the outside

63

Reproductive System

- male and female sex organs are the testes and ovaries
-2 functions: production of gametes (sex cells) and production of hormones
-these activities are under the control of tropic hormones from the pituitary gland
-reproductive activity in women is cyclic but is continuos in men
-gametes are formed by meiosis

64

Male Reproductive System

-spermatoza develop within the seminiferous tubules of each testis
- the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone
- this male hormone influences sperm cell development and also produces the male secondary sex characteristics like facial hair, body hair and voice deepening
- once produced, sperm are matured and stored in the epididymis of each testis
- during ejaculation the pathway for the sperm includes vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
-along the pathway are glands that produce the transport medium, semen
- seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands

65

Male: testicular activity

- controlled by two anterior pituitary hormones
- FSH- regulates sperm production
-interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) or LH stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone

66

digestive system

-the alimentary canal (or digestive tube) consist of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus
-accessory organs of digestion include: liver, pancreas and gallbladder

67

process of breaking down food

- food is ingested into the mouth, where it is mechanically broken down by the teeth and tongue in the process of mastication

68

digestive system: saliva

- produced by 3 pairs of salivary glands, lubricates and dilutes the chewed food
- salvia contains an enzyme called amylase that starts digestion of complex carbohydrates
-a ball of food called a bolus is formed

69

process of breaking down food: esophagus

- constrictive muscles of the pharynx force the food into the upper portion of the esophagus, and the food is swallowed
-the esophagus is a narrow tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach

70

digestive tract

-has 4 main layers, from innermost to outermost: the mucous membrane, the submucous layer, the muscular layer, and the serous layer

71

digestive system: food enters stomach

-food enters stomach where gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid that breaks down foods
- stomach churns and mixes the bolus of food, turning into a soupy substance called chyme
- the stomach also stores food and regulates the movement of food into the small intestine

72

digestive system: digestion and absorption

-occurs in the small intestines
- food is acted on by various enzymes from the small intestine and pancreas by bile from the liver
- pancreas also contributes water to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach
-nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestines
-amino acids are from proteins and carbs and are absorbed into the blood
- fats are absorbed into the lacteals and eventually added to the blood
-all nutrients then enter the hepatic portal vein to be routed to the liver for decontamination
-villi- increase the surface area of the intestinal wall

73

digestive system: digestion and absorption

-occurs in the small intestines
- food is acted on by various enzymes from the small intestine and pancreas by bile from the liver
- pancreas also contributes water to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach
-nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestines
-amino acids are from proteins and carbs and are absorbed into the blood
- fats are absorbed into the lacteals and eventually added to the blood

74

small intestines consist of

- duodenum, ileum and jejunum

75

digestive system: large intestines

- reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food
-abundant bacteria, intestinal flora
-5 portions: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and the rectum
-opening for defecation is anus

76

female reproductive system

-each month, under the influence of FSH, several eggs ripen within the ovarian follicle in the ovary
- estrogen, produced by the follicle initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy
- at 14 days of the cycle, surge or LH is released from the pituitary, which stimulates ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum
- the corpus luteum secretes the hormones progesterone and estrogen, which further stimulates development of the endometrium
-if fertilization does occur, the corpus luteum remains functional
-if fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates and menstruation begins

77

female reproductive system: fertilization

-after ovulation, the egg is swept into the oviduct or fallopian tube
-of fertilization occurs, it occurs while the egg is in the oviduct
- the fertilized egg or zygote travels to the uterus and implants itself within the endometrium
-in the uterus, the developing embryo is nourished by the placenta, which is formed by maternal and embryonic tissues
- during pregnancy, hormones from the placenta maintain the endometrium and prepare the mammary glands for breast milk production