Anatomy & Term Ch 1-4 Exam Prep Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy & Term Ch 1-4 Exam Prep Deck (53):
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Integumentary System

Skin and sense organs. Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands, eye, ear, nose, throat and tongue.

1

Muscular System

Muscles, tendons

2

Skeletal

Bnes, cartilage, ligaments

3

Cardiovascular

Heart, blood vessels ( arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels, and nodes, spleen and thymus gland

4

Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves

5

Respiratory System

Nose, larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs

6

Digestive System

Mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large), liver, gall bladder, pancreas

7

Urinary or
Excretory Systems

Kidneys, ureters (tubes from kidney to bladders), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from bladder to outside of the body)

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Reproductive System

Female: Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

Male: testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland

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Endocrine system

Thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands

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Cartilage

Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. For example, it surrounds the trachea, and forms part of the nose and ear.

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Histologist

Someone who studies tissues.

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Pituitary Gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain

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Thyroid Gland

Endocrine Gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.

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Viscera

Internal organs

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Name 5 Body Cavities:

One of those can be further divided into 2 spaces, which 1, and what are they?

1. Cranial
2. Thoracic
3. Abdominal
4. Pelvic
5. Spinal

Thoracic, Pleural Cavity, and Mediastinum

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There are how many lobes of the lungs?

5

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Diaphragm

Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. The diaphragm moves up and down and aids in breathing.

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Mediastinum

Centrally located space outside of and between the lungs

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Pleura

Double folded membrane surrounding each lung.

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Ventral
Anterior

Pertaining to the front

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How many abdominopelvic Regions are there?

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Looks just like a tic tac toe board. I'm going number the squares like a telephone keypad for easy reference.
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

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Center Square of the Abdominopelvic Regions, # 5 on the phone.

Umbilical Region

Region of the naval or umbilicus.

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Right Middle Square of the Abdominopelvic Regions, #4

Right Lumbar Region

Right middle region near the waist.

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Left Middle Square of the Abdominopelvic Region, #6

Left Lumbar Region

Left middle region near the waist.

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Right Upper Square of Abdominopelvic Regions, #1

Right Hypochondriac Region

Right upper region below(hypo) the cartilage(chondr/o) of the ribs that extend over the abdomen.

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Left Upper Square of the Abdominopelvic Regions, #3

Left Hypochondriac Region

Left upper region below the rib cage.

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Lower Center Section of the Abdominopelvic Regions, #8

Hypogastric Region

Middle lower region below the stomach region

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Right Lower Square of the Abdominopelvic Regions, #7

Right Inguinal Region

Right lower region near the groin (Inguinal/o = groin)

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Left Lower Region of the Abdominopelvic Regions, #9

Left Lower Inguinal Region

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What is in the Right Upper Quadrant?
RUQ

Liver(right lobe), gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestine.

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What is in the Left Upper Quadrant?
LUQ

Liver(left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestine.

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What is in the Right Lower Quadrant?
RLQ

Parts of the small and large intestine, right overly, right Fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter

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What is in the Left Lower Quadrant?
LLQ

Parts of the small and large intestine, left ovary, left Fallopian tube, left ureter.

34

Divisions of the Spinal Column
There are 5, name them and how many vertebrae each.

1. Cervical. C7
2. Thoracic. T12. Each one joined to a rib
3. Lumbar. L5
4. Sacral. S5. 5 pieces fused to form 1 piece, the Sacrum
5. Coccygeal. 4 pieces fused to form I small bone, the Coccyx

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Adduct

To pull towards

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Abduct

To push away, take away.

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Prone

To lay down on your stomach.

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Supine

To lay down on your back.

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Posterior
Distal

Back, behind

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Proximal

Near the point of attachment

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Distal

Away from the point of attachment.

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Medial

To the middle

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Lateral

To the side

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Frontal Plane
Coronal Plane

Vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions. I.e. common chest X-ray

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Saggital Plane
Lateral Plane

Lengthwise vertical plane dividing the body into left and right sides.

A midsagittal plane divides into right and left halves.

A lateral chest X-ray is taken in the sagittal plane.

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Transverse Plane
Axial Plane

Horizontal (cross sectional) plane running across the body parallel to the ground. Divides the body into an upper and lower portion.

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What are the 3 different type of blood cells?

Erythrocytes - red blood cells
Leukocytes - white blood cells
Thrombocytes - platelets

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What do Erythrocytes do?

The protein Hemoglobin within them carry oxygen, which they carry to all the cells of the body. The cells use the oxygen to burn food and release energy, catabolism.

49

Leukocytes are broken down into 2 catagories according to their nuclei. What are they?

1. Polymorphonuclear cells, or Granulocytes - contain dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm and have a multi-lobed nucleus. They are formed in the bone marrow, and there are 3 types.

2. Mononuclear cells, or Agranulocytes - have one large nucleus and only a few granules in their cytoplasm. They are produced in bone marrow, AND lymph nodes, AND spleen, and there are 2 types.

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What are the 3 types of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (Granulocytes)?

1. Eosinophils - [granules stain red (eosin = rosy) with acidic stain.] are active and increased in number in allergic conditions such as asthma. About 3% of Leukocytes are this type.
2. Basophils - [granules stain blue with basic (bas/o = basic) stain] The function of Basophils is not clear, but the number of these cells increases in the healing phase of inflammation. Less than 1% of Leukocytes are this type.
3. Neutrophils - [granules stain a pale purple with neutral stain] are important disease fighting cells. They are Phagocytes (phag/o = eating swallowing) they engulf and digest bacteria. They are the most numerous disease fighting soldiers. 50% - 60% of of Leukocytes are neutrophils and are referred to as " polys " because of their multi lobed nucleus.

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What are the 2 types of Mononuclear Leukocytes, or Agranulocytes?

1. Lymphocytes - (Lymph cells) fight disease by producing antibodies that destroy foreign cells OR they may attach directly to foreign cells and destroy them. Two types of lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells. About 32% of Leukocytes are lymphocytes.
2. Monocytes - ( Cells with one [Mon/o = one] very large nucleus) engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked and destroyed foreign cells. Monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter tissues (such as lung and liver) to become macrophages, which are large phagocytes. They are 4% of Leukocytes.

52

What is a Thrombocyte?

A Thrombocyte or platelet (clotting cells) are the third type of blood cell. They are actually tiny fragments of cells formed in the bone marrow and necessary for blood clotting.