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Flashcards in Anatomy and Embryology Deck (72):
1

Which germ layer do the kidney come from?

Mesoderm

2

How many mesonephric tubules are produced and when do they regress?

40
Regress to 20 at 5 weeks
Function then regress week 10

3

When does the metanephros form?

5 weeks

4

Which structure does the metanephros give of?

Ureteric bud

5

When does the ureteric bud form?

28 days

6

Which structure does the ureteric bud form?

Metanephric blastoma

7

What does the metanephric bud become?

The nephron

8

Which germ layer does the bladder derive from?

Endoderm

9

Which layers surround the kidney (from kidney -->)

Renal capsule -> perinephric fat -> renal fascia -> paranephric fat -> visceral peritoneum

10

At which vertebral levels is the left kidney?

T12- L2

11

At which vertebral levels is the right kidney?

L1 - L3

12

Which is the most dependent part of the peritoneal cavity when lying down?

Hepatorenal recess

13

Which is more anterior, renal vein or artery?

Vein

14

Which is more anterior, iliac artery or iliac vein

Artery

15

Where do the kidneys drain lymph?

Lumbar nodes

16

Where does lymph from ureters drain?

Lumbar and iliac nodes

17

What effect can AAA have on the renal arteries?

Renal stenosis

18

Name 5 normal anatomical variations in the renal system

Bifid renal pelvis
Bifid ureter
Retrocaval ureter
Horseshoe kidney
Pelvic kidney

19

In what order does fluid pass through a nephron?

Glomerulus - prox convoluted tubule - loop of Henle - distal convoluted tubule - collecting duct - minor calyx

20

How does urine drain from the kidney?

Minor calyx - major calyx - renal pelvis and ureter

21

Where are the three sites of anatomical constriction i nthe ureter?

PUJ, crossing commo iliac and the ureteric orifice

22

What are renal calculi?

Urine calcium salts which form stones

23

Where do the ureters run?

Retroperitoneum - false pelvis - true pelvis

24

What is the false pelvis?

Iliac crest - pelvic inlet

25

What is the true pelvis?

Pelvic inlet to pelvic floor

26

Which muscle is the "pelvic diaphragm" ?

Levator ani

27

Where is the perineum?

Between the pelvic floor and the skin

28

At which level to the ureters turn to meet the posterior bladder?

Level of ischial spine

29

What is the trigone?

A triangle of smooth muscle in the bladder marked by the two ureteric orifices and the internal urethral orifice

30

Which muscle makes up most of the bladder wall?

Detrusor muscle

31

What does the detrusor muscle do?

Tighten around the ureteric orifices when the bladder contracts

32

Which sphincter do males have which females don't?

Internal urethral sphincter

33

In which position is the uterus?

Anteflexed

34

Which pouch separates the uterus and the bladder?

Uterovesical pouch

35

Which pouch separates the bladder and rectum in males?

Rectovesical pouch

36

Which type of muscles is the external urethral sphincter?

Skeletal

37

What does the spermatic cord contain?

Testicular artery, vas deferens and pampiniform plexus

38

Which sac inside the scrotum do the testes sit in?

Tunica vaginalis
(has parietal and visceral layers)

39

What is excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis called?

Hydrocoele

40

Where is the epididymis palpated?

Posterior aspect of the testes

41

Where is the vas deferens palpated?

Within the scrotum

42

Where is the opening of the ejaculatory duct?

Within the prostatic urethra

43

What are the two zones of the prostate?

Central and peripheral

44

In which zone of the prostate is cancer more common?

Peripheral

45

What are the 3 parts of the penis?

Root, body, glans

46

Which arteries supplies the penis and scrotum?

Penis - deep arteries to the penis
Scrotum - internal pudendal and external iliac

47

Where does lymph from the scrotum and penis drain?

Superficial inguinal nodes in superficial fascia

48

Where does lymph from the testis drain?

Lumbar nodes

49

Between which levels do sympathetic nerves leave the CNS?

T1-L2

50

What do sympathetic nerves supply?

Body wall, smooth muscle and glands

51

Through which nerves do the sympathetic nerves supply muscle and glands?

Splanchnic nerves

52

Where do nerves from the abdominosplanchnic nerves synapse?

Abdominal sympathetic ganglia at abdo aorta

53

What is the term give to collection of nerves outside the arteries?

Periaterial plexus

54

How do parasympathetic fibres leave the CNS?

via CN III, VII, IX, X

55

Through which nerves do the parasympathetic nerves supply the ureter and kidney exit?

CNX

56

Through which nerves do the parasympathetic nerves supply the bladder exit?

Pelvic splanchnic nerves

57

Which spinal roots do the pelvic splanchnic nerves leave?

S2,S3,S4

58

Which parts of the renal system do somatic motor nerves innervate?

Urethra and its sphincter

59

Where do sympathetic nerves supplying the kidneys exit?

T10-L2

60

Where do visceral afferents from the kidneys and ureters go back into the CNS?

T11-L1 kidneys
T11-L2 ureters

61

Which nerves mainly control micturition?

S2,3, 4

62

Which nerves make up the lumbar plexus?

L1-L4

63

What are the nerve root(s) of ilihyopgastric?

L1

64

What are the nerve root(s) of ilioinguinal

L1

65

What are the nerve root(s) of lateral cutenous nerve of the thigh?

L2,L3

66

What are the nerve root(s) of gentiofemoral?

L1,L2

67

What are the nerve root(s) of femoral?

L2,L3,L4

68

What are the nerve root(s) of obturator nerve?

L2,L3,L4

69

Where does the tibial nerve supply on the foot?

Sensory to plantar aspect

70

Which nerve supplies the first web space of the foot?

Deep fibular

71

Which nerve supplies the dorsal aspect of the foot?

Superficial fibular

72

Which nerve supplies the lateral aspect of the foot

Sural