Flashcards in Anatomy and Embryology Deck (72):
Which germ layer do the kidney come from?
How many mesonephric tubules are produced and when do they regress?
Regress to 20 at 5 weeks
Function then regress week 10
When does the metanephros form?
Which structure does the metanephros give of?
When does the ureteric bud form?
Which structure does the ureteric bud form?
What does the metanephric bud become?
Which germ layer does the bladder derive from?
Which layers surround the kidney (from kidney -->)
Renal capsule -> perinephric fat -> renal fascia -> paranephric fat -> visceral peritoneum
At which vertebral levels is the left kidney?
At which vertebral levels is the right kidney?
L1 - L3
Which is the most dependent part of the peritoneal cavity when lying down?
Which is more anterior, renal vein or artery?
Which is more anterior, iliac artery or iliac vein
Where do the kidneys drain lymph?
Where does lymph from ureters drain?
Lumbar and iliac nodes
What effect can AAA have on the renal arteries?
Name 5 normal anatomical variations in the renal system
Bifid renal pelvis
In what order does fluid pass through a nephron?
Glomerulus - prox convoluted tubule - loop of Henle - distal convoluted tubule - collecting duct - minor calyx
How does urine drain from the kidney?
Minor calyx - major calyx - renal pelvis and ureter
Where are the three sites of anatomical constriction i nthe ureter?
PUJ, crossing commo iliac and the ureteric orifice
What are renal calculi?
Urine calcium salts which form stones
Where do the ureters run?
Retroperitoneum - false pelvis - true pelvis
What is the false pelvis?
Iliac crest - pelvic inlet
What is the true pelvis?
Pelvic inlet to pelvic floor
Which muscle is the "pelvic diaphragm" ?
Where is the perineum?
Between the pelvic floor and the skin
At which level to the ureters turn to meet the posterior bladder?
Level of ischial spine
What is the trigone?
A triangle of smooth muscle in the bladder marked by the two ureteric orifices and the internal urethral orifice
Which muscle makes up most of the bladder wall?
What does the detrusor muscle do?
Tighten around the ureteric orifices when the bladder contracts
Which sphincter do males have which females don't?
Internal urethral sphincter
In which position is the uterus?
Which pouch separates the uterus and the bladder?
Which pouch separates the bladder and rectum in males?
Which type of muscles is the external urethral sphincter?
What does the spermatic cord contain?
Testicular artery, vas deferens and pampiniform plexus
Which sac inside the scrotum do the testes sit in?
(has parietal and visceral layers)
What is excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis called?
Where is the epididymis palpated?
Posterior aspect of the testes
Where is the vas deferens palpated?
Within the scrotum
Where is the opening of the ejaculatory duct?
Within the prostatic urethra
What are the two zones of the prostate?
Central and peripheral
In which zone of the prostate is cancer more common?
What are the 3 parts of the penis?
Root, body, glans
Which arteries supplies the penis and scrotum?
Penis - deep arteries to the penis
Scrotum - internal pudendal and external iliac
Where does lymph from the scrotum and penis drain?
Superficial inguinal nodes in superficial fascia
Where does lymph from the testis drain?
Between which levels do sympathetic nerves leave the CNS?
What do sympathetic nerves supply?
Body wall, smooth muscle and glands
Through which nerves do the sympathetic nerves supply muscle and glands?
Where do nerves from the abdominosplanchnic nerves synapse?
Abdominal sympathetic ganglia at abdo aorta
What is the term give to collection of nerves outside the arteries?
How do parasympathetic fibres leave the CNS?
via CN III, VII, IX, X
Through which nerves do the parasympathetic nerves supply the ureter and kidney exit?
Through which nerves do the parasympathetic nerves supply the bladder exit?
Pelvic splanchnic nerves
Which spinal roots do the pelvic splanchnic nerves leave?
Which parts of the renal system do somatic motor nerves innervate?
Urethra and its sphincter
Where do sympathetic nerves supplying the kidneys exit?
Where do visceral afferents from the kidneys and ureters go back into the CNS?
Which nerves mainly control micturition?
Which nerves make up the lumbar plexus?
What are the nerve root(s) of ilihyopgastric?
What are the nerve root(s) of ilioinguinal
What are the nerve root(s) of lateral cutenous nerve of the thigh?
What are the nerve root(s) of gentiofemoral?
What are the nerve root(s) of femoral?
What are the nerve root(s) of obturator nerve?
Where does the tibial nerve supply on the foot?
Sensory to plantar aspect
Which nerve supplies the first web space of the foot?
Which nerve supplies the dorsal aspect of the foot?