Flashcards in Anatomy and embryology Deck (190)
What are the bones of the bony pelvis?
2 innominate bones
Each innominate bone is a fusion between which 3 bones?
The iliac fossa is the part of the bony pelvis which is for attachment of which muscle?
The iliac crest extends between which two points?
ASIS and PSIS
The ischiopubic rams is part of which bone(s)?
It is a part of both the ischium and the pubis!
What type of joint is the hip joint?
What type of joint is the pubis symphysis?
The inguinal ligament attaches between which two landmarks?
ASIS and the pubic tubercle
The ischial spines are palpable on vaginal examination. Where can they be palpated?
Palpable about a finger breadth into the vagina at 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock positions
What are the two important ligaments of the pelvis and what are their attachments?
Sacrum and ischial spine
Sacrum and ischial tuberosity
What is the function of the ligaments of the pelvis?
Ensure the inferior part of the sacrum is not pushed superiorly when weight is suddenly transferred vertically through the vertebral column
(e.g when jumping or in late pregnancy)
What are the bones/ bony features that make up the pelvic inlet?
Superior pubic ramus
What are the bones/ bony features that make up the pelvic outlet?
Which structure forms the inferior part of the pelvic cavity?
Levator ani muscle
Describe the differences in the bony pelvis in males and females
The AP and transverse diameters of the female pelvis are larger at the pelvic inlet and outlet
Subpubic angle (pubic arch) is wider in females
Pelvic cavity is shallower in females
What does the term 'moulding' mean?
Describes the movement of one bone over another to allow the foetal head to pass through the pelvis during labour
How should the fetal skull ideally enter the pelvic cavity and why is this?
Foetus should enter the cavity facing either to the right or left (transverse direction)
*This is because in the fetal skull the occipitofrontal diameter is longest and in the pelvic inlet the transverse diameter is widest
What is meant by the term 'station'?
The distance of the foetal head from the ischial spines
-ve number, means the head is superior
+ve number means the head is inferior
In what position should the baby ideally leave the pelvic cavity?
OA (occipitoanterior) position
During delivery the fetal head should be in extension
Describe how the fetal head changes position in the different stages of labour
At the pelvic inlet the fetal head should be transverse
As it descends through the pelvic cavity the fetal head should rotate and should be flexed
At the pelvic outlet the fetal head should ideally lie in the OA direction and extension of the head and neck should occur
After the head is delivered, it is manipulated into a transverse position to allow delivery of the shoulders
What is the vertebral level of the PSIS and what structure also ends at this level?
Dura ends here
*NB spinal cord ends at L2
What group of muscles attaches to the ischial tuberosity?
(Back of the thigh)
What structures pass through the obturator foramen?
At what vertebral level is the iliac crest?
What is the soft spot on the head of a newborn called?
(the spot between the two frontal bones and the parietal bone)
What structures are contained within the pelvic cavity?
Superior part of the vagina
What structures are contained within the perineum?
Inferior part of the vagina
The peritoneum forms which pouches in females?
Recto-uterine (pouch of douglas)
Where does excess fluid collect within the peritoneal cavity in women?
Pouch of douglas
(because this is the most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity when in the anatomical position )