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Flashcards in Anatomy and embryology Deck (190)
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1

What are the bones of the bony pelvis?

2 innominate bones
Sacrum
Coccyx

2

Each innominate bone is a fusion between which 3 bones?

Ilium

Ischium

Pubis

3

The iliac fossa is the part of the bony pelvis which is for attachment of which muscle?

iliacus muscle

4

The iliac crest extends between which two points?

ASIS and PSIS

5

The ischiopubic rams is part of which bone(s)?

It is a part of both the ischium and the pubis!

6

What type of joint is the hip joint?

Synovial joint

7

What type of joint is the pubis symphysis?

Secondary cartilaginous

8

The inguinal ligament attaches between which two landmarks?

ASIS and the pubic tubercle

9

The ischial spines are palpable on vaginal examination. Where can they be palpated?

Palpable about a finger breadth into the vagina at 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock positions

10

What are the two important ligaments of the pelvis and what are their attachments?

Sacrospinous ligament
Sacrum and ischial spine

Sacrotuberous ligament
Sacrum and ischial tuberosity

11

What is the function of the ligaments of the pelvis?

Ensure the inferior part of the sacrum is not pushed superiorly when weight is suddenly transferred vertically through the vertebral column

(e.g when jumping or in late pregnancy)

12

What are the bones/ bony features that make up the pelvic inlet?

Sacral promontory

Ilium

Superior pubic ramus

Pubic symphysis

13

What are the bones/ bony features that make up the pelvic outlet?

Pubic symphysis

Ischiopubic ramus

Ischial tuberosities

Sacrotuberous ligaments

Coccyx

14

Which structure forms the inferior part of the pelvic cavity?

Levator ani muscle

15

Describe the differences in the bony pelvis in males and females

The AP and transverse diameters of the female pelvis are larger at the pelvic inlet and outlet

Subpubic angle (pubic arch) is wider in females

Pelvic cavity is shallower in females

16

What does the term 'moulding' mean?

Describes the movement of one bone over another to allow the foetal head to pass through the pelvis during labour

17

How should the fetal skull ideally enter the pelvic cavity and why is this?

Foetus should enter the cavity facing either to the right or left (transverse direction)

*This is because in the fetal skull the occipitofrontal diameter is longest and in the pelvic inlet the transverse diameter is widest

18

What is meant by the term 'station'?

The distance of the foetal head from the ischial spines

-ve number, means the head is superior
+ve number means the head is inferior

19

In what position should the baby ideally leave the pelvic cavity?

OA (occipitoanterior) position

During delivery the fetal head should be in extension

20

Describe how the fetal head changes position in the different stages of labour

At the pelvic inlet the fetal head should be transverse

As it descends through the pelvic cavity the fetal head should rotate and should be flexed

At the pelvic outlet the fetal head should ideally lie in the OA direction and extension of the head and neck should occur

After the head is delivered, it is manipulated into a transverse position to allow delivery of the shoulders

21

What is the vertebral level of the PSIS and what structure also ends at this level?

S2

Dura ends here

*NB spinal cord ends at L2

22

What group of muscles attaches to the ischial tuberosity?

Hamstrings

(Back of the thigh)

23

What structures pass through the obturator foramen?

Obturator nerve

Obturator artery

24

At what vertebral level is the iliac crest?

L4

25

What is the soft spot on the head of a newborn called?

Anterior fontanelle

(the spot between the two frontal bones and the parietal bone)

26

What structures are contained within the pelvic cavity?

Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Superior part of the vagina

27

What structures are contained within the perineum?

Inferior part of the vagina
Perineal muscles
Bartholin's glands
Clitoris
Labia
(external genitalia)

28

The peritoneum forms which pouches in females?

Vesico-uterine

Recto-uterine (pouch of douglas)

29

Where does excess fluid collect within the peritoneal cavity in women?

Pouch of douglas

(because this is the most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity when in the anatomical position )

30

How can fluid be rained from the pouch of douglas?

Culdocentesis

= Drainage via a needle passed through the posterior fornix of the vagina