Anatomy and Histology of the Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Systems - Urinary > Anatomy and Histology of the Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy and Histology of the Urinary System Deck (37):
1

What is in the urinary system?

Kidneys

Ureters

Urinary bladder

Urethra

2

What are the functions of the urinary system?

•Removes metabolic waste from blood by filtration and excretion

•Regulates blood pressure (by renin angiotensin mechanism)

•Regulates plasma  concentrations of electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride etc.)

•Help to stabilize the PH

•Conserves valuable nutrients

•Reabsorption of small molecules (amino acids. Glucose, and peptides)

•Produces erythropoietin  (a stimulant of RBC production by bone marrow)

3

What is the position of the kidneys?

•The kidneys lie in a retroperitoneal position, at the level of T12-L3.

•Right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.

•They are only partially peritonised.

4

What organs are anteriorly related to the kidney?

Right - liver, right colic flexure, duodenum

 

Left - Stomach, spleen, pancreas, descending colon

5

What are the posterior relations of the kidney?

 

Nerves: Subcostal, biohypogastric, biolingual

 

Related to the 12th rib

6

Label the following portions of the kidney

7

What are the following labels?

8

Pelvis is always posterior

9

What are the names of the different sections of the kidney?

10

What are the renal arteries?

–Segmental branches (x5)

–Interlobar

–Arcuate branches pass around the circumference

–Interlobular branches which ultimately supply each nephron.

–Essentially non-anastomosing

11

What are the veins of the kidney?

•Renal veins (1/each side): drains into the inferior vena cava.

12

Internal urethral sphincter is controled by the autonomic nervous system 

External is urethral sphnicter is controlled by us

13

What is the narrowest part of the urethra?

Membranous part

14

What is the most dilated part of the urethra?

Prostatic part of the urethra

15

What is the longest part of the urethra?

The spongy part

16

17

What are the lymphatics and vessels of the urinary bladder?

•Arteries:

–Branches of the internal iliac arteries

•Veins:

–Tributaries of the internal iliac veins

•Lymphatic:

–External iliac: suprapubic part

–Internal iliac: Infrapubic part

18

What is the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the internal sphincter? 

Closes the internal sphincter

Nerves L1-L2

 

Parasympathetic nerves involved are S2,3 and 4

19

Which nerve constricts the detrusor muscle during micturition?

Parasympathetic

20

Transpyloric plane passes through which vertebral level?

L1

21

What composes the nephron?

Renal corpsucles and renal tubules

22

What composes the renal corpsucles?

Glomerulus and the bowman's capsule

23

What are the constrictions of the ureter?

1: When the ureter passes over the inferior renal pole

2: Ureter crosses over external iliac vessels (pelvic part)

3: Ureter traverses the bladder wall

24

What is the nerve supply to the kidney?

•Renal plexus: sympathetic: T10-L1, Sensory afferent:T11-L2

25

What does the median umbilical ligament form from?

Forms from the embryonic urachus

26

What do the two medial umbilical folds form from?

Occluded umbilical artery

27

What do the two lateral umbilical folds form from?

Inferior epigastric vessels

28

What is the arrow pointing at?

The pouch of douglas

29

What is the ganglion associated with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system that is responsible for controlling the internal sphincter and the detrusor muscle?

Hypogastric ganglion

Pelvic ganglion

 

Sympathetic (T11-L2) controls the internal urethral sphincter

Parasympathetic (S2-S4) (motor to detrusor muscle)

30

What somatic nerve controls the external urethral sphincter?

Pudendal nerve 

31

Which part of the kidney is the bowmans capsule found in?

Cortex

 

Also contains: 

•Renal corpuscles

•Proximal convoluted tubules (cuboidal+ microvilli)

•Distal convoluted tubules (cuboidal)

•Collecting tubule

     (cuboidal)

32

What part of the kidney is the loop of henle found in?

The medulla

 

Also contains 

•Proximal convoluted tubules

•Distal convoluted tubules

And the collecting tubule

33

What type of epithelium exists in the ureter?

Transitional epithelium

34

What are the features of the ureter?

•Star shaped lumen

Two layers of smooth muscle (inner longitudinal and outer circular)

35

What are the features of the bladder?

Transitional epithelium

Inner longitudinal smooth muscle

Middle circular smooth muscle

Outer longitudinal smooth muscle

36

What are the common pathologies associated with the urogenital system?

UTI

Glomerulonephritis

Kidney stone / renal calculi

Kidney failure and dialysis

Urinary incontinence (common after childbirth / old age in female)

37

What are the common developmental abnormalities?