What is in the urinary system?
What are the functions of the urinary system?
•Removes metabolic waste from blood by filtration and excretion
•Regulates blood pressure (by renin angiotensin mechanism)
•Regulates plasma concentrations of electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride etc.)
•Help to stabilize the PH
•Conserves valuable nutrients
•Reabsorption of small molecules (amino acids. Glucose, and peptides)
•Produces erythropoietin (a stimulant of RBC production by bone marrow)
What is the position of the kidneys?
•The kidneys lie in a retroperitoneal position, at the level of T12-L3.
•Right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.
•They are only partially peritonised.
What organs are anteriorly related to the kidney?
Right - liver, right colic flexure, duodenum
Left - Stomach, spleen, pancreas, descending colon
What are the posterior relations of the kidney?
Nerves: Subcostal, biohypogastric, biolingual
Related to the 12th rib
Label the following portions of the kidney
What are the following labels?
Pelvis is always posterior
What are the names of the different sections of the kidney?
What are the renal arteries?
–Segmental branches (x5)
–Arcuate branches pass around the circumference
–Interlobular branches which ultimately supply each nephron.
What are the veins of the kidney?
•Renal veins (1/each side): drains into the inferior vena cava.
Internal urethral sphincter is controled by the autonomic nervous system
External is urethral sphnicter is controlled by us
What is the narrowest part of the urethra?
What is the most dilated part of the urethra?
Prostatic part of the urethra
What is the longest part of the urethra?
The spongy part
What are the lymphatics and vessels of the urinary bladder?
–Branches of the internal iliac arteries
–Tributaries of the internal iliac veins
–External iliac: suprapubic part
–Internal iliac: Infrapubic part
What is the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the internal sphincter?
Closes the internal sphincter
Parasympathetic nerves involved are S2,3 and 4
Which nerve constricts the detrusor muscle during micturition?
Transpyloric plane passes through which vertebral level?
What composes the nephron?
Renal corpsucles and renal tubules
What composes the renal corpsucles?
Glomerulus and the bowman's capsule
What are the constrictions of the ureter?
1: When the ureter passes over the inferior renal pole
2: Ureter crosses over external iliac vessels (pelvic part)
3: Ureter traverses the bladder wall
What is the nerve supply to the kidney?
•Renal plexus: sympathetic: T10-L1, Sensory afferent:T11-L2
What does the median umbilical ligament form from?
Forms from the embryonic urachus
What do the two medial umbilical folds form from?
Occluded umbilical artery
What do the two lateral umbilical folds form from?
Inferior epigastric vessels
What is the arrow pointing at?
The pouch of douglas
What is the ganglion associated with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system that is responsible for controlling the internal sphincter and the detrusor muscle?
Sympathetic (T11-L2) controls the internal urethral sphincter
Parasympathetic (S2-S4) (motor to detrusor muscle)
What somatic nerve controls the external urethral sphincter?
Which part of the kidney is the bowmans capsule found in?
•Proximal convoluted tubules (cuboidal+ microvilli)
•Distal convoluted tubules (cuboidal)
What part of the kidney is the loop of henle found in?
•Proximal convoluted tubules
•Distal convoluted tubules
And the collecting tubule
What type of epithelium exists in the ureter?
What are the features of the ureter?
•Star shaped lumen
Two layers of smooth muscle (inner longitudinal and outer circular)
What are the features of the bladder?
Inner longitudinal smooth muscle
Middle circular smooth muscle
Outer longitudinal smooth muscle
What are the common pathologies associated with the urogenital system?
Kidney stone / renal calculi
Kidney failure and dialysis
Urinary incontinence (common after childbirth / old age in female)
What are the common developmental abnormalities?