Anatomy and physiology ch.1 The Human Organism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and physiology ch.1 The Human Organism Deck (91):
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systemic anatomy

study of the body by systems

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regional anatomy

the study of the body by regions

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anatomy

the study of the structure of the body

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anatomical imaging

the use of x-rays, mris, cat scans.

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physiology

the study of the function of body parts

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6 levels of the human body

1. atom
2. cellular
3. tissue
4. organ
5. organ system
6. organism

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atomic level

atoms combine to form molecules

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cellular level

molecules combine to form a cell

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tissue level

similar cells combine to form tissue

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organ level

similar tissues combine to form organs

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organ system

organs with similar functions make an organ system

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organism

a combination of organ systems

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integumentary system

provides protection, regulates temp, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D.
consists of hair, skin, nails, sweat glands

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skeletal system

provides protection, movement, makes blood cells, stores minerals and fat, consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints

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muscular system

provides movement and produces body heat. consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons. 3 types of muscle: smooth, cardiac, and skeletal

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lymphatic system

removes foreign substances from the blood, assists in the production of lymphocytes, maintains fluid in tissues, and absorbs fat/ fat soluble materials from the digestive tract. consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, pancreas

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respiratory system

consists of the nose, the nasal cavity, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchial tree, and the lungs.
used for breathing, serves to extract oxygen and release carbon dioxide buildup (gas exchange). helps to maintain the ph balance of the body.

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digestive system

consists of the mouth, the throat, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, the rectum, and the anus. functions to ingest food, digest, absorb nutrients from food, and eliminates waste.

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nervous system

consists of the brain, the spinal cord, nerves, detects changes outside and inside of the body. serves the body to control the muscles

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endocrine system

introduces hormones into the body, regulates growth, controls blood sugars, regulates metabolism.

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cardiovascular system

moves blood around the body. used to move nutrients, respiratory gases, waste products, and hormones.

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urinary system

consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. moves nitrogenous wastes, regulates body PH, and maintains fluids and ion balance.

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reproductive system

consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, testes, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and the penis.

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negative feedback

maintains homeostasis

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receptor

monitors the value of a varible

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control center

establishes a set point which a variable is to be maintained around

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effector

something that can change the value of the variable

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positive feedback

goes away from homeostasis. i.e. during birth, the brain will tell the body to contract more to release the baby

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anatomical position

standing straight up, feet forward, and palms facing out.

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prone

belly down

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supine

belly up

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superior

going towards the head or cephalically

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inferior

moving towards the feet

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caudal

dealing with the feet

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medial

going to the center line of the body

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lateral

going away from the center line of the body

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proximal

meaning close by to a point

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distal

meaning far away from a point

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anterior

ventral of the front of the body

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posterior

dorsal or the back of the body

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sagittal

separating the left and right halves of the body

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midsagittal

line in the middle of the body separating left and right halves

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transverse

splits the body into superior and inferior halves

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frontal

the coronal plane, splits the body into a posterior half and an anterior half

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oblique

splits the body into a diagonal plane

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cephalad

the head area

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frontal

the forehead

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orbital

the eye region

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nasal

the nose region

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oral

the mouth region

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otic

the ear region

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buccal

the cheek region

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mental

the brain

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cervical

the front of the neck

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thoracic

the trunk of the body above the diaphragm

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pectoral

the chest area

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sternal

the sternum

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mammary

the nipple region

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coxal

the hip region

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iguinal

the area around the genitals

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axillary

the armpit

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brachial

the arm

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antecubital

the bend in the elbow

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antebrachial

the forearm

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carpal

the wrist

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palmar

the palm

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phalanges

digits of the hand and the foot

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femoral

the thigh region

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patellar

the knee

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crural

the shin

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sural

the calf

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popliteal

the back of the knee

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olecranal

the elbow

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tarsal

the ankle

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plantar

the sole of the foot

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calcaneal

the heel

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sacral

point between hips

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occipital

the back of the head

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nuchal

the back of the neck

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acromial

the point of the shoulder

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lumbar

the lower back

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thoracic cavity

contains the heart, the lungs, and the mediastinum

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mediastinum

contains part of the heart, the thymus, the trachea, the esophagus

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pleural cavity

contains the lungs

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pericardium

sac that contains the heart

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tic tac toe grid of the abdomen

r hypochondriac, r lumbar, r iliac, epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric, l hypochondriac, l lumbar, l iliac

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visceral membrane

inner wall of the serous membrane

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parietal membrane

outer wall of the serous membrane

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peritoneum

the abdominal membrane that covers the abdominal wall and the organs

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mesenteries

attaches the organ to the abdominal wall

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retroperitoneal

organs located behind the peritoneum; includes the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas,parts of the intestines, and part of the urinary bladder