Anatomy and Physiology Ch.6 Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Ch.6 Skeletal System Deck (84):
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Functions of the skeletal system (5)

1.protecting
2. movement
3. supporting
4. storage of fat, calcium, and phosphorous
5. Red blood cell production

1

cartilage

used a a shock absorber for the joints

2

tendons

tethers muscle to bone

3

ligaments

ligates bone to bone

4

long bon

bone that is longer than it is wide

5

short bone

bone that is about as wide as it is long

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flat bone

bones that are flat

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irregular bone

any bone that doesn't fit in the other categories

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compact bone

bone that is mostly solid matrix; has an osteon (haversian system)

9

spongy bone

aka trabecular bone or cancellous bone. has trabecular rods and is loosely packed.

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diaphysis

the central part of a long bone

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epiphysis

one of the ends of the long bone

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articular cartilage

covers the epiphysis; especially in joints to prevent abrasion

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epiphyseal plate

a growth plate separating the epiphysis from the diaphysis; only found in growing bones; made of cartilage, but turns to bone when growth is complete.

14

epiphyseal line

separates the epiphysis and the diaphysis; only found in adults that have completed bone growth

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medullary cavity

cavity found in the middle of the diaphysis; contains marrow

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periosteum

outer layer of the diaphysis; conatins blood vessels and nerves

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endosteum

inside of diaphysis lining the medullary cavity

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Osteon ( haversian system)

found only in compact bone, the cells are aligned in a circular pattern around the central canal

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lamella

calcium deposits within compact bones

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canaliculi

small canals inside of compact bone

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central canal

gap in the middle of an osteon containing blood vessels

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osteocytes

maintains the bone matrix

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osteoblasts

creates bone cell matrix

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osteoclasts

destroys bone cell matrix

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ossification

the formation of bone by osteoblasts

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primary ossification center

the center part of the diaphysis where bone first begins to appear

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secondary ossification center

the formation of bone matrix in the epiphyses

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intramembranous ossification

when osteoblasts begin to produce bone in the connective tissue membrane. most commonly found in the fetal skull. (the ossification membranes in the head are known as the soft spots on a baby's head)

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steps in endochondral ossification (4 steps)

1. a cartilage matrix is created by chondrocytes.
2. primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis
3. the bone collar is produced, and the perrichondrium becomes the periosteum.
4. secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis.

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bone growth

bone growth occurs by the deposition of new bone lamellae into existing bone or into cartilage.

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PTH (Parathyroid hormone)

increases activity of the osteoclasts to break down bone and release it into the blood stream

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calitonin

increases the production of the osteoblasts to make new bone cells to take calcium out of the bloodstream

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bone (CA2+) homeostasis 3 ways

1. osteoblasts/osteoclasts can make or destroy bone
2. the small intestine can increase/decrease CA absorption (with help from vitamin D).
3. the kidneys can increase/ decrease CA reabsorption.

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hematopoietic tissue

tissue within bone that creates blood cells

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red bone marrow

responsible for the formation of red blood cells. in babies it is found throughout the body; in adults it is found mainly in the epiphyses of the femur and the humerus.

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yellow bone marrow

consists of mostly fat. if this is broken into a blood stream, it can result in a fat embolism. found mostly in limb bones excluding the epiphyses of the femur and the humerus.

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bone remodeling

involves the removal of existing bone by osteoclasts, and the deposition of new bone by osteoblasts. changes bone shape, adjusts to stress, bone repair, and calcium homeostasis.

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bone repair (4 steps)

1. a CLOT forms in the area of the damaged bone
2. blood vessels and cells invade the clot and produce a CALLUS (made of cartilage)
3. osteoblasts enter the callus and form trabecular (SPONGY) bone.
4. the spongy bone is remodeled to form COMPACT bone.

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Foramen

a hole in a bone.

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Fossa

a depression in a bone

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Process

a projection from a bone

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condyle

smooth, round end that meets with another bone to make a joint usually

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meatus

a canal through a bone

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tubercle

a lump on a bone. also called a tuberosity

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axial skeleton

everything in the skeleton that touches the midsaggital plane (the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage

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appendicular skeleton

consists of the limbs, as well as the girdles, which attache the limbs to the axial skeleton

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synarthrosis

nonmovable joint

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amphiarthrosis

slightly movable joint

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diarthrosis

freely movable joint

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fibrous joints

2 bones that are joined by fibrous tissue and have little to no movement
there are three subdivisions. sutures, syndesmosomes, and gomphoses.

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sutures

fibrous joints between the bones of the skull.

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fontanels

also known as soft spots, these connect the unfused bones of the skull.

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syndesmosomes

these fibrous joints are in between bones that are separated by a distance and connected by ligaments

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gomphoses

fibrous joints of pegs fitted into sockets and held in place by ligaments.

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cartilagenous joints

joints that have little movement. i.e. the rib/sternum

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synovial joints

freely moving joints that contain synovial fluid in a cavity. mostly found in the appendicular skeleton.
there are 6 types of synovial joints: plane, saddle, hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, and ellipsoid

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plane joints

plane joints are 2 bones that are flat that glide with each other i.e. vertabrae

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saddle joint

consists of 2 saddle shaped surfaces that allow 2 planes of movement. found in the thumb.

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hinge joint

allows one axis of movement.i.e. the elbow

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pivot joint

allows rotation. found in the radius and ulna

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ball-and-socket joint

allows multiple axes of movement. found in the shoulder and the hip/

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ellipsoid

elongated ball and socket joints limiting movement to two planes. found in the atlas (C1) and the occipital bone

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flexion

to bend a joint

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extension

to extend a joint

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abduction

to move laterally from the body

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adduction

to move medially to the body

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pronation

face down

69

supination

face up

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eversion

turning the foot so it faces laterally

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inversion

turning the foot to face medially

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rotation

turning

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crest

prominent ridge

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cornu

horn shaped process

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facet

smooth articulating face

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fissure

narrow slit like opening

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fovea

small pit

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groove (sulcus)

deep and narrow depression

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margin

an edge of a bone

80

notch

depressed margin

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ramus

arm-like bar of bone

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sinus (labyrinth

cavity in a bone

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spine

very high ridge

84

trochanter

very large bump (on femur)