Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Ch.6 Skeletal System Deck (84):
Functions of the skeletal system (5)
4. storage of fat, calcium, and phosphorous
5. Red blood cell production
used a a shock absorber for the joints
tethers muscle to bone
ligates bone to bone
bone that is longer than it is wide
bone that is about as wide as it is long
bones that are flat
any bone that doesn't fit in the other categories
bone that is mostly solid matrix; has an osteon (haversian system)
aka trabecular bone or cancellous bone. has trabecular rods and is loosely packed.
the central part of a long bone
one of the ends of the long bone
covers the epiphysis; especially in joints to prevent abrasion
a growth plate separating the epiphysis from the diaphysis; only found in growing bones; made of cartilage, but turns to bone when growth is complete.
separates the epiphysis and the diaphysis; only found in adults that have completed bone growth
cavity found in the middle of the diaphysis; contains marrow
outer layer of the diaphysis; conatins blood vessels and nerves
inside of diaphysis lining the medullary cavity
Osteon ( haversian system)
found only in compact bone, the cells are aligned in a circular pattern around the central canal
calcium deposits within compact bones
small canals inside of compact bone
gap in the middle of an osteon containing blood vessels
maintains the bone matrix
creates bone cell matrix
destroys bone cell matrix
the formation of bone by osteoblasts
primary ossification center
the center part of the diaphysis where bone first begins to appear
secondary ossification center
the formation of bone matrix in the epiphyses
when osteoblasts begin to produce bone in the connective tissue membrane. most commonly found in the fetal skull. (the ossification membranes in the head are known as the soft spots on a baby's head)
steps in endochondral ossification (4 steps)
1. a cartilage matrix is created by chondrocytes.
2. primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis
3. the bone collar is produced, and the perrichondrium becomes the periosteum.
4. secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis.
bone growth occurs by the deposition of new bone lamellae into existing bone or into cartilage.
PTH (Parathyroid hormone)
increases activity of the osteoclasts to break down bone and release it into the blood stream
increases the production of the osteoblasts to make new bone cells to take calcium out of the bloodstream
bone (CA2+) homeostasis 3 ways
1. osteoblasts/osteoclasts can make or destroy bone
2. the small intestine can increase/decrease CA absorption (with help from vitamin D).
3. the kidneys can increase/ decrease CA reabsorption.
tissue within bone that creates blood cells
red bone marrow
responsible for the formation of red blood cells. in babies it is found throughout the body; in adults it is found mainly in the epiphyses of the femur and the humerus.
yellow bone marrow
consists of mostly fat. if this is broken into a blood stream, it can result in a fat embolism. found mostly in limb bones excluding the epiphyses of the femur and the humerus.
involves the removal of existing bone by osteoclasts, and the deposition of new bone by osteoblasts. changes bone shape, adjusts to stress, bone repair, and calcium homeostasis.
bone repair (4 steps)
1. a CLOT forms in the area of the damaged bone
2. blood vessels and cells invade the clot and produce a CALLUS (made of cartilage)
3. osteoblasts enter the callus and form trabecular (SPONGY) bone.
4. the spongy bone is remodeled to form COMPACT bone.
a hole in a bone.
a depression in a bone
a projection from a bone
smooth, round end that meets with another bone to make a joint usually
a canal through a bone
a lump on a bone. also called a tuberosity
everything in the skeleton that touches the midsaggital plane (the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage
consists of the limbs, as well as the girdles, which attache the limbs to the axial skeleton
slightly movable joint
freely movable joint
2 bones that are joined by fibrous tissue and have little to no movement
there are three subdivisions. sutures, syndesmosomes, and gomphoses.
fibrous joints between the bones of the skull.
also known as soft spots, these connect the unfused bones of the skull.
these fibrous joints are in between bones that are separated by a distance and connected by ligaments
fibrous joints of pegs fitted into sockets and held in place by ligaments.
joints that have little movement. i.e. the rib/sternum
freely moving joints that contain synovial fluid in a cavity. mostly found in the appendicular skeleton.
there are 6 types of synovial joints: plane, saddle, hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, and ellipsoid
plane joints are 2 bones that are flat that glide with each other i.e. vertabrae
consists of 2 saddle shaped surfaces that allow 2 planes of movement. found in the thumb.
allows one axis of movement.i.e. the elbow
allows rotation. found in the radius and ulna
allows multiple axes of movement. found in the shoulder and the hip/
elongated ball and socket joints limiting movement to two planes. found in the atlas (C1) and the occipital bone
to bend a joint
to extend a joint
to move laterally from the body
to move medially to the body
turning the foot so it faces laterally
turning the foot to face medially
horn shaped process
smooth articulating face
narrow slit like opening
deep and narrow depression
an edge of a bone
arm-like bar of bone
cavity in a bone
very high ridge