Anatomy and Physiology/Endocrineology for Quiz 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology/Endocrineology for Quiz 3 Deck (38):
1

what makes up whole blood

45 % formed elements
55% plasma

2

What makes up formed elements in whole blood

platelets
red blood cells
white blood cells

3

what makes up plasma

1,5% other
91% water
7% proteins

4

what is another name for red blood cells

erythrocytes

5

what do red cells do

carry oxygen and CO2

6

another name for white blood cells

leukocytes

7

what do white blood cells do

they are immune cells

8

another name for platelets

thrombocytes

9

what do platelets do

blood clotting

10

what does the nervous system do

carries signals from sensory orgnas to the brain (afferent signals) and signals from brain to muscles and tissues (efferent signals)

11

what are the two systems the nervous system is divided into and what do they include

central nervous system- brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system- cranial and spinal nerves

12

what is the oxygen binding protein in blood

hemeglobin

13

in a neuron/nerve cell what does dendrites do

receive signal from adjacent cell

14

what does the axon do

carries signals along the length of cell via electrical action potential

15

what does the terminal bulb do

hold neurotransmitters to communicate with the dendrites of the next neuron

16

what is the synapse

the space between the dendrites of one cell and terminal bulb of the next

17

what is an example of a neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

18

what is acetocholine

substance released from terminal button nerve cell it propacates that nervous thing?

19

The speed of contraction is determined by the ________ _________ of the ________ that control the muscle

intrinsic property of the nerve

20

what are transverse tubules

extensions of the sarcolemma

21

def of eplymsium
perimysium
endonysium
muscle cell

ep- connective tissues around muscle
pe- connective tissues around bundle of muscle fibers
en- connective around muscle cell
mu- another name= muscle fiber

22

Cardiac muscle
branched fibers connected by dense ________ _______
many __________ __________
large and numerous ___________

intercalated disks
glycogen granules
mitochondria

23

In the lymph system....
_____________ or _________ filter foreign substances, produce ___________.

nodes or glands
produce lymphocytes

24

These are considered Immune cells

white blood cells

25

What are 2 examples of amine hormones

catecholamines
thyroid hormones

26

What are the three chemical classes of hormones

proteins/peptides
amines
steroids

27

secretion from a cell acts on the same cell

autocrine

28

chemical synthesized in ductless glands and secreted into blood, and thereby transported to target tissues when they evoke a specific response

hormones

29

The range of movement depends on muscle....

length

30

Muscle contraction
1. signal from _____
2. _____ ______ spreads along _______ and ______ into the _______ of _______.
3. ________ released from _______ ________.
4. ______ binds the protein _________, causes _______ change in protein complex, allows _____ to bind ________ leads to crossbridge _______ leads to contraction.
5. _________ of signals = _______ release ceases
6. _________ pumped into ______ _______ and muscle relaxes

A. signal from nerve
B. Action potential, sarcolemma, t tubules, interior of fiber
C. calcium release from terminal cisternae
d. calcium binds, troponin c, conformation, myosin, actin, cycling
e. cessation, Ca+++,
f. CA+++, sarcoplasma reticulum

31

long, thin, cylindrical rods

site of force production within muscle fibers

run parallel to long axis of muscle Fibers-entire length

500-2000 per myofiber

80% of skeletal muscle volume

myofibrils

32

Skeletal muscle connected to bone via ________

tendons

33

moves oxygenated blood to body and returns venous blood to heart

systemic circulation

34

skeletal muscle has ______ control
cardiac muscle has ______ control
smooth muscle has ______ control

voluntary
involuntary
involuntary

35

those are also known as thromnoytes

platelets

36

hormone receptors describe

minimal chemical moiety of a target cell that provides specific recognition of a hormone
have sites for hormone binding, signol transjunction and or interaction with cellular macromolecules
located on all surface intracellular

37

what are two steroid hormones

cholesterol progesterone

38

low intensity burns more _____
high intensity burns more _____

lipids
carbs