Anatomy and Physiology of Brain and Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology of Brain and Nervous System Deck (41):


Refers to Structure





Central Nervous System

- consists of brain and spinal cord inter neurons
- Spinal cord is an extension of brain stem, co-ordinates reflexes, channels communication between brain and peripheral nerves

- brain is decision making of CNS


Peripheral Nervous System

Carries information b/w CNS and rest of the body
Made up of all nerves and ganglia outside of CNS

- divided into Somatic NS & Autonomic NS


Somatic Nervous System

Conveys sensory info to CNS and motor msgs to muscles

Gathers sensory info from sense organs and sends to brain


Autonomic Nervous System

- Involuntary
- Regulates involuntary, bodily functions
- Connects to the CNS via nerves to internal organs

- Subdivisions are sympathetic and Parasympathetic



Dominates when under stress
Activates internal muscles to act quickly
e.g. pupils dilate, released endorphins



- Maintains steady state of balanced normal functioning
- Restores body to calmness post threat
- opposite to sympathetic


PNS Nerves

- 31 pairs of spinal nerves
- 12 pairs of cranial nerves
- Dorsal Root: sensory info.
- Ventral Root: Motor info.


Frontal Lobe

- Primary Motor Cortex
- Most complex behaviours: planning, problem solving etc
Control of voluntary movement
- Left part = Broca's area which control muscles of throat, tongue, mouth jaw face


Parietal Lobe

- Primary Somatosensory cortex
- Processes: sensory info, motion detection, depth perception, sense of touch


Occipital Lobe

- Primary Visual Cortex
- Processes inc. visual sense info
- Seeing colours, perceiving and recognising objects


Temporal Lobe

- Primary Auditory Cortex
- Processing sound
- Processes auditory information
- Memory, facial recognition, object identification, emotion


broca's Area and Wernicke's Arca

- Responsible for speech production and language processing

- Damage to B.Area: slowed speech, prevent person from speaking, inability to understand language

- Damage to W.Area: Loss of ability to understand language, speak clearly but string of words make no sense


External Recordings: EEG

- Detects, amplifies and records electrical activity of neurons
- Produces a recording of brain waves, are analysed and then interpreted
- Different brain waves detected

- Can indicate tumors, epilepsy, sleeping problems


EEG advantages and disadvantages

adv. = painless, harmless, non invasive, cheap, can be used on all ages

limitations = doesnt detect location of electrical activity
- provides an overview and not a source


Scanning techniques: Still pictures CAT

- Computerised Axial Tomography
- Scanned images is turned into 3D image of brain
- Can detect: tumors, strokes, other injuries
- Can show difference between dmgd & healthy tissue


Advantages and Disadvantages of CAT

- Less expensive brain research method
- Non-invasive
- Some require injection of iodine dye

- dis: exposure to radiation
- provides info about structure, not brain activity


Scanning Techniques Still Pictures: MRI

- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Uses magnetic field to create detailed image of brain
- Detects: tumors, abnormalities

Can distinguish types of tissue more clearly than a CT


Advantages and Disadvantages of MRI

Adv. = shows difference between dmgd and healthy tissue
- damages areas easily identified
- non invasive
- no exposure to radiation

Limitations: - no info on brain activity, expensive, no magnets in machine


Scanning Techniques Dynamic Pictures: FMRI

- Functional magnetic resonance Imaging
- Measures brain function during consumption of 02 by neurons
- Higher brain activity means higher oxygen intake?

- Uses large magnets to create magnetic field
- Able to detect flow of oxygenated blood to brain, as oxygen moves to active areas

BOLD: Blood Oxygenated Level Dependent Signal
- Higher BOLD = Increase brain activity = Increase oxygen


Advantages and Disadvantages of FMRI

Adv. = Non-invasive, no radiation, displays active areas of brain

Limitations= Most expensive, small movements affect results


Scanning Techniques Dynamic Pictures: PET

- Positron emissions Tomography
- Glucose consumption of brain
- Higher glucose levels reflect higher brain activity
- Radioactive trace that decays by emitting a positron is injected to body

- Requires injection of radio-active glucose
- Measures amount of brain activity that occurs while participant is undergoing task


- Can detect tumors, other damage, areas of brain linked with reading, maths


Advantages and Disadvantages of PET

Adv: - shows area of brain that is damaged

disadvantages: - invasive procedure, exposure to radiation, does not provide detailed images of the brain


Case Study: Phineas Gage

Suffered accident 4;15 @ 13/09/1848 in USA
- Filling a deep rock with gunpwoder, large rod shot through his head afterward because gun powder was ignited

Striked him below his left eye then going straight through
- Personality changed to impatient, dishonest, crude, irresponsible, profane

- Lived for a while afterwards.


Animal Research

- Studying animals allows one to make predictions about brain function / behaviour in humans
- Results can be generalised
- Researches can manipulate / control environments of animals, study and see affects


Ablation - Karl Lashley

- Contributed for studying, learning and memory
- Surgically removed rats brains but could not find 1 part for memory, therefore memory is not localised to 1 area

- Can be assumed memory is widely distributed through cerebral cortex
- Brain is more complicated than initially thought


Lesions - Sperry

Area of the brain is destroyed / stimulated observing charges
- Two hemispheres of the brain each contain consciousness
- Each hemisphere is responsible for performing different tasks


Electrical Stimulation

- Procedure
- Using multiple micro-electrodes in specific areas of the brain
- Weak electrical currents used in short pulses intended to mimic natural flow of impulses through neural pathways

- 1954 James Odis and Peter Milner
- A rat would press a bar to recieve a small electric shock
- Beneficial effects in anxiety, depression, insomnia and stress



- Individual nerve cells that receives, transmits and processes information
- Conveys msgs to each other in the form of neural impulses, electrochemical msgs
- Are the basic building blocks of nervous system


Nucleus of Neurons

control centre


Cell body of Neurons

contains nucleus


Dendrites of Neurons

Receive msgs from other neurons, transmits them towards cell body for processing


Axon of Neurons

Carry information away from cell body


Myelin Sheath

Insulates and protects axons
- speeds up electrical signals
- Neurons do not physically connect to another



- Gap between dendrites and axons in neurons
- Chemicals are released here



- Chemical substances that carry msgs across the synapse to the dendrite
- Affect how messages are passed b/w neurons
- Exercise increases neurotransmitters


Motor Neurons

- convey messages away from brain to skeletal muscles for movement


Sensory Neurons

Carry messages to brain to be interpretted



Involved with the onset of sleep and moods
- used in medication for people suffering depression



- Involved in complex bodily movements
- Regulates emotional responses i.e pleasure and excitement
- Used in med. for people with Parkinsons