Anatomy and Physiology of Brain and Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology of Brain and Nervous System Deck (41):
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Anatomy

Refers to Structure

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Physiology

Function

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Central Nervous System

- consists of brain and spinal cord inter neurons
- Spinal cord is an extension of brain stem, co-ordinates reflexes, channels communication between brain and peripheral nerves

- brain is decision making of CNS

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Peripheral Nervous System

Carries information b/w CNS and rest of the body
Made up of all nerves and ganglia outside of CNS

- divided into Somatic NS & Autonomic NS

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Somatic Nervous System

Conveys sensory info to CNS and motor msgs to muscles

Gathers sensory info from sense organs and sends to brain

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Autonomic Nervous System

- Involuntary
- Regulates involuntary, bodily functions
- Connects to the CNS via nerves to internal organs

- Subdivisions are sympathetic and Parasympathetic

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Sympathetic

Dominates when under stress
Activates internal muscles to act quickly
e.g. pupils dilate, released endorphins

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Parasympathetic

- Maintains steady state of balanced normal functioning
- Restores body to calmness post threat
- opposite to sympathetic

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PNS Nerves

- 31 pairs of spinal nerves
- 12 pairs of cranial nerves
- Dorsal Root: sensory info.
- Ventral Root: Motor info.

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Frontal Lobe

- Primary Motor Cortex
- Most complex behaviours: planning, problem solving etc
Control of voluntary movement
- Left part = Broca's area which control muscles of throat, tongue, mouth jaw face

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Parietal Lobe

- Primary Somatosensory cortex
- Processes: sensory info, motion detection, depth perception, sense of touch

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Occipital Lobe

- Primary Visual Cortex
- Processes inc. visual sense info
- Seeing colours, perceiving and recognising objects

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Temporal Lobe

- Primary Auditory Cortex
- Processing sound
- Processes auditory information
- Memory, facial recognition, object identification, emotion

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broca's Area and Wernicke's Arca

- Responsible for speech production and language processing

- Damage to B.Area: slowed speech, prevent person from speaking, inability to understand language

- Damage to W.Area: Loss of ability to understand language, speak clearly but string of words make no sense

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External Recordings: EEG

- Detects, amplifies and records electrical activity of neurons
- Produces a recording of brain waves, are analysed and then interpreted
- Different brain waves detected

- Can indicate tumors, epilepsy, sleeping problems

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EEG advantages and disadvantages

adv. = painless, harmless, non invasive, cheap, can be used on all ages

limitations = doesnt detect location of electrical activity
- provides an overview and not a source

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Scanning techniques: Still pictures CAT

- Computerised Axial Tomography
- Scanned images is turned into 3D image of brain
- Can detect: tumors, strokes, other injuries
- Can show difference between dmgd & healthy tissue

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Advantages and Disadvantages of CAT

- Less expensive brain research method
- Non-invasive
- Some require injection of iodine dye

- dis: exposure to radiation
- provides info about structure, not brain activity

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Scanning Techniques Still Pictures: MRI

- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Uses magnetic field to create detailed image of brain
- Detects: tumors, abnormalities

Can distinguish types of tissue more clearly than a CT

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Advantages and Disadvantages of MRI

Adv. = shows difference between dmgd and healthy tissue
- damages areas easily identified
- non invasive
- no exposure to radiation

Limitations: - no info on brain activity, expensive, no magnets in machine

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Scanning Techniques Dynamic Pictures: FMRI

- Functional magnetic resonance Imaging
- Measures brain function during consumption of 02 by neurons
- Higher brain activity means higher oxygen intake?

- Uses large magnets to create magnetic field
- Able to detect flow of oxygenated blood to brain, as oxygen moves to active areas

BOLD: Blood Oxygenated Level Dependent Signal
- Higher BOLD = Increase brain activity = Increase oxygen

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Advantages and Disadvantages of FMRI

Adv. = Non-invasive, no radiation, displays active areas of brain

Limitations= Most expensive, small movements affect results

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Scanning Techniques Dynamic Pictures: PET

- Positron emissions Tomography
- Glucose consumption of brain
- Higher glucose levels reflect higher brain activity
- Radioactive trace that decays by emitting a positron is injected to body

- Requires injection of radio-active glucose
- Measures amount of brain activity that occurs while participant is undergoing task

USED WITH MRI

- Can detect tumors, other damage, areas of brain linked with reading, maths

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Advantages and Disadvantages of PET

Adv: - shows area of brain that is damaged

disadvantages: - invasive procedure, exposure to radiation, does not provide detailed images of the brain

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Case Study: Phineas Gage

Suffered accident 4;15 @ 13/09/1848 in USA
- Filling a deep rock with gunpwoder, large rod shot through his head afterward because gun powder was ignited

Striked him below his left eye then going straight through
- Personality changed to impatient, dishonest, crude, irresponsible, profane

- Lived for a while afterwards.

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Animal Research

- Studying animals allows one to make predictions about brain function / behaviour in humans
- Results can be generalised
- Researches can manipulate / control environments of animals, study and see affects

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Ablation - Karl Lashley

- Contributed for studying, learning and memory
- Surgically removed rats brains but could not find 1 part for memory, therefore memory is not localised to 1 area

- Can be assumed memory is widely distributed through cerebral cortex
- Brain is more complicated than initially thought

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Lesions - Sperry

Area of the brain is destroyed / stimulated observing charges
- Two hemispheres of the brain each contain consciousness
- Each hemisphere is responsible for performing different tasks

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Electrical Stimulation

- Procedure
- Using multiple micro-electrodes in specific areas of the brain
- Weak electrical currents used in short pulses intended to mimic natural flow of impulses through neural pathways

- 1954 James Odis and Peter Milner
- A rat would press a bar to recieve a small electric shock
- Beneficial effects in anxiety, depression, insomnia and stress

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Neurons

- Individual nerve cells that receives, transmits and processes information
- Conveys msgs to each other in the form of neural impulses, electrochemical msgs
- Are the basic building blocks of nervous system

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Nucleus of Neurons

control centre

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Cell body of Neurons

contains nucleus

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Dendrites of Neurons

Receive msgs from other neurons, transmits them towards cell body for processing

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Axon of Neurons

Carry information away from cell body

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Myelin Sheath

Insulates and protects axons
- speeds up electrical signals
- Neurons do not physically connect to another

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Synapse

- Gap between dendrites and axons in neurons
- Chemicals are released here

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Neurotransmitters

- Chemical substances that carry msgs across the synapse to the dendrite
- Affect how messages are passed b/w neurons
- Exercise increases neurotransmitters

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Motor Neurons

- convey messages away from brain to skeletal muscles for movement

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Sensory Neurons

Carry messages to brain to be interpretted

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Serotonin

Involved with the onset of sleep and moods
- used in medication for people suffering depression

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Dopamine

- Involved in complex bodily movements
- Regulates emotional responses i.e pleasure and excitement
- Used in med. for people with Parkinsons