Anatomy and Ventilation Flashcards Preview

Respiratory System > Anatomy and Ventilation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy and Ventilation Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

Can we palpate the first rib?

No

2

What part of the anatomy allows us to do chest compressions?

Costal cartilages (allow some give)

3

How many ribs on each side of direct connections to the sternum?

7 ribs

4

How many 'false' ribs do we have on each side?

3

5

How many floating ribs are there on each side?

2 (ribs 11 and 12)

6

How far does the diaphragm move in breathing?

Can move one and a half intercostal spaces

7

Describe the diaphragm

Fibromuscular membrane separating the abdomen from the thorax
Neurovascular structures pass through the central part
The heart sits on the central tendon of the diaphragm

8

Describe the external intercostal muscles

Fibres run in the direction of putting hands in pockets
Same direction as external obliques in abdomen
Pull the ribs up when they contract
(First rib is tethered by other muscles therefore acts as an anchor point)

9

Describe the internal intercostals

Fibres run perpendicular to external intercostals
Pull the ribs down on contraction

10

Describe the innermost intercostal

Thin, weak, hard to see
Mostly found laterally on the thorax
Fibres run parallel to internal intercostals therefore actions are the same - pull ribs down on contraction
Exercise increases the amount of intercostals you need

11

Where do the structures cross the diaphragm?

Vena cava = T8
Oesophagus = T10
Aorta = T12 (aortic hiatus)

12

Where are the neurovascular bundles in the ICSs?

Thick bundles at the top of ICS
(Therefore insert needles into the bottom of ICS)

13

What do the thick bundles in the ICSs usually contain?

Posterior intercostal artery
Posterior intercostal vein
Intercostal nerve

14

Describe the venous drainage of the thoracic cavity

Posterior of thoracic cavity we have the azygous venous system
Main azygous vein found to right of vertebral bodies
Collects blood from ICSs via hemiazygous and accessory hemiazygous veins
Drains into SVC

15

Describe the phrenic nerves

C3, 4 and 5
Control the diaphragm
Motor nerves but also sensory (caused of referred pain)
Run anterior to hilum of the heart

16

Foreign bodies tend to go in which direction when inhaled and why?

Right lung
Right main bronchus is at a much less acute angle than the left main bronchus

17

What provides the dual blood supply to the lungs?

Pulmonary arteries
Bronchial arteries

18

How does the diaphragm move in ventilation?

Contracts (moves down) in inspiration
Relaxes in expiration

19

Describe the process for how the air enters the lungs

Inspiratory muscles contract
Thoracic cavity expands
Pleural pressure becomes more negative
Lungs inflate
Alveolar pressure becomes subatmospheric
Air flows into the lungs until they equal atmospheric pressure

20

If everything wasn't stuck together well, where would the lungs, thoracic cage and diaphragm move?

Lungs - in and up
Thoracic cage - out
Diaphragm - down

21

What are the stages of the respiratory cycle?

1. Inspiration
2. Rest
3. Expiration
4. Pause

22

What is the average tidal volume?

0.5L (500ml)

23

The intrapleural pressure is always ...

Negative

24

What is the average air flow?

1 litre per second (decreases with age)

25

Describe forced expiration

Beyond the resting expiratory level
Use of the abdominal muscles and the internal intercostal
Occurs during exercise, respiratory obstruction and some disease states

26

Define the residual volume

Amount of air that can never be expelled from the lungs

27

What percentage of the oxygen you breathe in each breath gets to the alveoli?

20%

28

Define the inspiratory capacity

Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume

29

Give some reasons why the diaphragm may not be able to move into the abdomen as easily

Pregnancy
Obesity (fat is not compressible)
Corsets

30

Which muscles are used in forced inspiration?

Diaphragm
External intercostals
Sternocleidomastoid
Scalene
Serratus anterior
Pectoralis major