Anatomy- Cranial meninges, and cranial contents Flashcards Preview

Block 5 week 1 Dani > Anatomy- Cranial meninges, and cranial contents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy- Cranial meninges, and cranial contents Deck (112):
1

What surrounds the brain?

the neurocranium

2

what are the bones of the face called collectively?

the viscerocranium

3

What bones of the face come from neural crest, ectoderm?

frontal, nasal, sphenoid, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, incisive, mandible, sq. temporalis, hyoid

4

What bones of the face come from paraxial mesoderm (somites)?

parietal, pet temporal, occipitals,

5

What bones are made up of lateral plate mesoderm?

laryngeals

6

The division between neural crest derives bone and paraxial mesoderm derived bone occurs at the rostral end of the notochord at the (blank)

prechordal plate

7

The neural crest cells that make up the some of the bones of the skull are also the same neural crest cells that make what?

Heart and heart tube (hence why you sometimes get Craniofacial defects along with CV defects)

8

Is there paraxial mesoderm in front of the prechordal plate?

no, only neural crest cells

9

How can the neurocranium be divided?

into a membranous and cartilaginous part

10

What does the membranous part of the neurocranium consist of?

most of the flat bones that surround the brain (frontal, parietal, parts of temporal and occipital)
****the name membranous comes from their method of ossification i.e intramembranous******

11

the neurocranium develops primarily as (blank) bone

intramembranous

12

What does the cartilaginous neurocranium consist of?
How do these bones develop?

sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone, part of tempoal bone and part of occipital bone

endochondral bone ossification

13

Bones of the cranium arise from one source or multiple sources?

multiple sources

14

What are the exceptions to the rule that all large flat bones of the neurocranium are membranous?

part of occipital bone, part of temporal bone

15

(blank) develops primarily from membrane and comes from neural crest

viscerocranium

16

Some parts of the viscerocranium develop from cartilaginous models.... what three bones are these?

middle ear ossicles, laryngeal cartilages and hyoid bone

17

Why do newborns have such small faces?

they lack teeth which results in small jaw, they have no paranasal sinuses and facial bones are underdeveloped

18

What are fontanelles?

6 areas where flat bones of skull meet and along with the sutrues, allow for overlap during the birthing process

19

Premature suture closure results in (blank)

craniosynostosis

20

Incomplete closure of the anterior neuropore cause the skull bones to fail to grow together and can result in (blank).

crainioschisis

21

Why is it bad if you have premature suture closure as an infant?

because you limit further brain development

22

Please explain cranioschisis

failure of neural tube to close-> therfore failure of neurocranium to close which results in brain tissue getting exposed to amniotic fluid which degenerates and results in some type of ancephaly and the fetus is usually not viable.

23

What is a cranial meningoencephalocele?

The protrusion of the meninges and the brain through a congenital defect in the cranium

24

What is a meningocele?

the protrusion of the meninges through a congenital defect in the cranium

25

Is there an epidural space in the brain?

nooo... however there is a potential space

26

the (blank) forms the periosteum of the interior cranial cavity

dura mater

27

Where do the meningeal arteries travel in the brain?

within the potential epidural space (i.e lies between the dura and the skull)

28

Why is there little grooves in the skull?

the meningeal arteries rub against the skull and erode little grooves

29

Why is the middle meningeal susceptible to damage?

it is superficial and located under a part of the skull that is susceptible to fracture

30

What are the 2 layers to the dura?

a periosteal layer and a meningeal layer

31

The 2 layers of the dura sometimes separate on their own to form (blank)

dural sinuses

32

The diagnostic hallmark of (blank) is:
LUCID INTERVAL.
Patients may have transient unconsciousness.
Patients may regain consciousness, only to relapse suddenly into
unconsciousness (“Talk and Die Syndrome”).

epidural hematoma

33

What is a potentially deadly condition because of compression of brain and increase in intracranial pressure. 15-20% of patients die of this.

epidural hematoma

34

What kills you in an epidermal hematoma?

the bleed doesnt, its the fact that it is a space occupying legion which mans there is not place for this legion to go except down through the foramen magnum which will compress the respiratory and cardiovascular center which kills ya :(

35

(blank) collapses against the brain if the CSF is gone.

arachnoid layer

36

The transluent membrane on top of the brain is the arachnoid, you can see (blank) piercing through it.

veins

37

The vessels (cerebral artery and vein) are lining the subarachnoid space until the veins reach the point where they need to penetrate the arachnoid layer and enter into the (blank)

dural sinuses

38

HOw do the vessels of the brain travel (cerebral artery and vein)?

vessels travel in the subarachnoid space and need to pierce the arachnoid to gain the dural sinuses

39

(blank) is directly on the surface of the brain, following all sulci and gyri

pia mater

40

The cerebral veins penetrate the dura to empty into the (blank)

superior sagittal sinus

41

The subdural space is a potential space that can be filled with a (blank) pressure bleed. The epidural space is a potential space that can be filled with a (blank) pressure bleed.

low
high

42

What all are dural sinuses made up of?

blood from cerebral veins and CSF from arachnoid granulation

43

What veins communicate with the scalp and dural sinuses? Why are they important?

emissary veins
can transmit infections from scalp into cranial cavity

44

What are extensions of meningeal dura called?

dural reflections

45

The sites where two layers of dura mater split form (blank)

dural sinuses

46

What are the arachnoid villus?

small protrusions of the arachnoid through the dura mater that protrude into the venous sinuses of the brain, and allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to exit the sub-arachnoid space and enter the blood stream.

47

What does this describe:
blood occurs quickly in subdural space
occurs mostly in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI)
often assoc. with other injuries
often assoc. with cerebral edema
poor outcome (50% mortality rate) and sequelae

Acute subdural hematome (acute SDH)

48

What does this describe:
blood appears slowly in subdural space
long time course
patients often do not remember an injury
careful observation or slow drainage
outcome is relatively good

Chronic Subdural Hematoma (chronic SDH)

49

What are the 2 prominant dural reflections in the brain?

Falx (like a mohawk)
Tentorium cerebelli (flat across)

50

What does the Falx cerebri attach to?

part of ethmoid and to the tentorium/cerebellum

51

Superior sagittal sinus will flow until the (blank)

confluence of sinuses

52

The inferior sagittal sinus will meet with the (blank).

straight sinus

53

What is significant about the straight sinus?

it is where the falx meets with the tentorium

54

Where does the occipital sinus drain into? What is signif about this?

the confluence of sinuses. This is the connection b/w prostate plexus therefore prostate cancer can spread here

55

Where will the the confluence of sinuses run?

to the transverse sinus into the sigmoid sinus which will ultimately hook up with the internal jugular vein

56

What is significant about cavernous sinuses?

From top to bottom:
carotid, CN 3, 4, 6, V1, V2

57

ALl the sinuses ultimately drain into the (blank)

internal jugular vein

58

What are the 7 sinuses?

superior sagittal
inferior sagittal
straight
conflues
transverse
sigmoid
cavernous

59

What three things drain to the cavernous sinus? What do we call the collection of these?

opthalamic plexus, pterygoid plexus and facial vein
triangle of death (cuz super prone to infection)

60

How come the cavernous sinus can drain in different directions?

because it doesnt have valves

61

You make CSF through the ventricles and this travels out through to the (blank).

subarachnoid space

62

What are all the ventricle?

2 lateral ventricles
Third ventricle
cerebral aqueduct
fourth ventricle

63

Which ventricles are C shaped and extend to all lobes of the brain?

the two lateral ventricles

64

How do you flow from the lateral ventricle to the third ventricle?

via intraventricular foramen of morno

65

How do you flow from the third ventricle to the fourth?

via the cerebral aqueduct

66

How do you flow from the fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space?

to the Foramen of Luscka (lateral foramen) and Foramen of Magendie (medial foramen) which let CSF to subarachnoid space

67

Is the cisterna magna above or below the fourth ventricle?

below the fourth ventricle

68

Where is the choroid plexus?

above the lat ventricle

69

How much CSF is produced and where does it go?
What is the capacity for CSF?

400-500 ml/day, most of it is resorbed by the arachnoid granulations.
150 ml

70

What does CSF do?

functions in buoyancy, nutrition and waste removal

71

(blank) are places where CNS tissue makes abrupt change in direction and arachnoid follows a smooth course like the Dura creating an enlarged subarachnoid space. (i,e between the pia and the arachnoid)

cisterns

72

What are the four subarachnoid cisterns?

superior cistern
interpeduncular cistern
pontine cistern
cisterna magna

73

What is the most important cistern?

cisterna magna

74

What is hydrocephalus?

excessive accumulation of CSF due to overproduction or inadequate reabsorption reabsorption resulting in dialation of cerebral ventricles and raised intracranial pressure.

75

What can hydrocephalus cause in infants?

enlargement of cranium and atrophy of brain

76

What are the 2 blood supplies to the brain?

internal carotid
vertebral

77

What does the carotid do?

split into external and inernal carotid

78

What does the internal cartoid artery do?

makes C shaped bend and gives off branches to orbital and contributes to circle of willis

79

When the verterbal artery busts through the transverse foramina, what does it do?

it merges with the basilar

80

What are all the components to the circle of willis?

vertebral artery via the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries
posterior communicating
internal cartoid artery via the middle cerebral and anterior cerebral and the anterior communicating

81

What are the vertebral artery contributions to the circle of willis?

basilar and posterior cerebral artery

82

What are the internal carotid artery contributions to the circle of willis?

middle cerebral and anterior cerebral

83

What arteries goes through the middle border of the cerebral fissure? What artery connects these 2?

the anterior cerebral
anterior communicating artery

84

What is sig about the circle of willis?

it is the last place in the brain where there is potential collateral flow (i,e if block internal carotid or something)

85

What is a CVA?

cerebrovascular accident

86

Why do you get a stroke (CVA)?

obstruction or rupture of a cerebral vessel

87

What are the 2 ischemic strokes?

thrombotic and embolic

88

What happens if you have a break in a blood vessel in the brain due to an aneurysm?

cerebral hemmorhage (hemorrhagic stroke)

89

what is crazy about blood and neural tissue?

blood is cytotoxic to neurotissue

90

What are the three cranial fossae?

anterior
middle
posterior

91

What is in the anterior cranial fossa?

the frontal lobe

92

What it is in the middle cranial fossa?

temporal lobe

93

What is in the posterior cranial fossa?

the occipital lobe and cerebellum

94

The (blank) is where the brain stem meets up with the cerebral hemispheres

tentorial notch

95

What is the grayish structure with holes in it at the anterior part of the skull?

cribiform plate

96

Explain the orientation of the following anterior structures:
optic canal
foramen rotundum
foramen ovale
carotid canal
superior orbital fissure

optic canal is most anterior with the superior orbital fissure resting on top of that and slightly posteior. The foramen rotundum is just below the superior orbital fissure and slightly posteior. The foramen ovale is the big hole betwee the carotid canal and the foramen spinosum

97

Which of the following is the largest of the following posterior structures:
Which is the deepest?
Which is the most superficial?
internal acoustic meatus
hypoglossal canal
jugular foramen

jugular foramen is largest
hypoglossal cana
internal acoustic meatus

98

What goes through cribiform plate?

tiny oflactory nerves

99

What goes through the optic canal?

CN 2

100

What goes through superior orbital fissure?

CN 3 4 6 V1

101

What goes through the foramen rotundum?

V2

102

What goes through the foramen ovale?

V3

103

What goes through the foramen lacerum?

nothing just cartilage

104

What goes through the internal acoustic meatus?

CN 7 and 8
***7 leaves skull, 8 never leaves skull***

105

Wha t passes through the jugular foramen?

CN 9, 10, 11 and jugular vein

106

Where do the cell bodies of 9 and 10 come from?

medulla

107

What comes out of the hypoglossal canal?

all roots of CN 12 come out of cranium here

108

Which cranial nerves are at greatest risk, the ones with a long distance, or the ones with a short distance to travel?

long distance to travel

109

What nerve exit the brainstem at the skull in the posterior fossa?

Cn 7-12

110

What nerves exit the brainstem in the posterior fossa and travel intradurally into the middle fossa where they leave the skull?

CN 3-6

111

Which nerves are very susceptible to damage?

CN 3-6

112

What can happen at the acoustic meatus?

you can get an acoustic neuroma that will affect your CN 7 and 8 (since they travel in there) and then can further compress 5,6,9,10