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Flashcards in anatomy exam I Deck (29)
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1

Where is Posterior triangle?

Space between trapezius, clavicle & scm

2

What makes up the axilla?

Triangular space between humers, rib cage @ anterior/posterior folds (pec major & lats)

3

How many joints in elbow, what are they?

3: Humeroulnar: trochlear notch of ulna
Humoralradial: capitulum of humerous with head of radius
Proximal radio-ulnar: head of radius with radial notch on ulnar side

4

What are elbow movements?

flexion, extension of forearm

pronation/ supination @proximal radial ulnar joint

5

Elbow joint ligaments

Ulnar collateral: triangular ligamnet with upper/lower bands- ulnar nerve passes between bands
posterior to medial epicondoyle

radial collateral: attached to annular ligamnet

annular ligament: sling around head of radius to form proximal radioulnar joint'

6

proximal radialulnar joint

annular ligaments permits rotation of head of radius around ulna

Interosseous membrane links bones together

7

dermatome

area of skin innervated by one spinal segment

8

myotome

area of muscle innervated by 1 spinal segment

usually 2-3 segments per muscle

often evaluated by strength testing

9

radial nerve

branches from posterior cord
passes between medial/lateral head of triceps
innervates 3 heads of triceps

10

long thoracic nerve

descends from C5, 6, 7 innervates SA on superficial surface

11

Early joint development

mesenchyme (pluripoint tissue) differentiates into cartilage for future bone
CT for joints

12

Ct between bones differentiates into what kind of joints?

3 joints: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

13

Superficial fascia

subdermal loose connective tissue that contains fat nerves and blood vessels

14

deep fascia

thick CT that forms various protective structures
investing layer surrounds muscle groups
intermuscular septa seperates functional muscle into groups

15

Bursae

flattened sacs in regions to reduce friction: muscle/tendon/bone

closed sac of CT devoid of air and lubricated by fluid secreted by membrane

16

synovial sheath

bursa surrounding tendon

17

what are synovial joints supported by?

capsular and extra capsular ligamnets

18

How long does egg stay embyro after fertilization?

9 weeks

19

what are embryonic cells flattened into?

What's it made of?

trilaminar disc

3 germ cell layers
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

20

endoderm makes?

Gi tract, inner lining of digestive tract, respiratory tracts, glands (inculding iver & pancreas)

21

mesoderm makes?

Muscle, bones, cartilage, circulatory system, dermis, tissue

22

ectoderm makes?

brain and nervous system, epidermis,

23

Week 4?

Paraxial mesoderm thickens and divides into paired masses (sides of notcord) of mesenchymal cells called SOMITES.

Beginning of spinal cord segmentation

24

Segmentation of spinal cord

Deep tendon reflexes
referred pain
spinal nerves
Often defined by vertebral segments

25

Somites seperate into?

What do segments form?

Dermatome: dermis

Myotome; muscles

Scerlotome: vertabrae and ribs

26

Where do limb buds develop from/when

what do they consist of?

by week 5 appear from ventral walls of embryo

Consist of mesoderm (lateral somite) and Ectoderm (apical ectodermal ridge)

27

Myotome cells migrate____ and develop into ____?

What migrates with them?

limb bud, muscle and cartilage

Spinal nerves to innervate muscles

28

When do cartilage models of bones begin to form?

6 weeks

29

When does enchondral ossification happen?

by week 9