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Flashcards in anatomy final - endocrine system Deck (13)
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Chronic hormone secretion

Constant, like thyroxine.


Acute hormone secretion

Response to specific stimulus, like E, NE, insulin.


Episodic hormone secretion

Daily or monthly cycles.


Target cell

A cell with receptor to specific hormone.


Control by humeral stimuli

Non-hormone molecules regulate hormone. Like, insulin and when you have high blood glucose.


Control by neural stimuli.

It's control by the nervous system stuff.
Stress ----> ANS ------> Sympathetic Neurons (neural) ----> Adrenal Medulla -----> Epinephrine and norepinephrine


Control by hormone stimuli

Like hypothalamus controlling anterior pituitary hormones. It's when a hormone controls another hormone, like thyroxine and metabolism and such.


Hormone regulation - down regulation

Loss of receptors.
Synthesize rate of receptor goes down.
Target cells become less sensitive to hormones.
Ex - disease state, type 2 diabetes is from loss of insulin receptors.
Illegal drugs.


Hormone regulation - up-regulation

Increased number of receptors to a particular hormone.
Increases synthesis rate of receptor molecules.
Effect - target becomes more sensitive to hormone.
Ex - oxytocin, before childbirth the uterus makes more receptors to oxytocin.


Classes of receptors - nuclear receptors.

Steroid hormones and TH.
LIPID solubility.
Activate DNA - transcription, translation.
Slow response time.


Class of receptors - membrane bound receptors

Protein or peptide hormones, E and Ne.
Big and h2o soluble.
Activate intracellular regulatory molecules which activate enzymes or change membrane permeability.
Cascade effect - fast and amplified response.
Fast response time.



Three serious of biologically active fatty acid derivatives, secreted by virtually all cells, and producing local effects. They are secreted into interstitial fluid, not into blood.


What does aspirin do?

⬇ Prostaglandins
⬇Smooth muscle contractions
⬇Blood clotting.