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Functions of blood

Transport of oxygen.nutrients, wastes, hormones,etc.
Regulation of body temp, PH, fluid, etc.
Protection against foreign invaders. WBC's are five times thicker than H2O.
Denser than water.

1

Volume and PH of blood.

5 liters in adults.
PH - 7.35-7.45

2

Red blood cells - functions.

Carry oxygen between lungs and cells because oxygen does not dissolve in water.

Can carry some co2 but most c02 is carried in plasma.

3

Hemoglobin - RBC

Four proteins (globin). Four Hemes, each with one iron.

1 hemoglobin carries 4 O2.

4

Characteristics of RBC - 4 major.

Anucleate (no nucleus), bioncave.

Metabolism.
4 month life span, cannot repair itself.
1/3 hemoglobin - red color.
Synthesized.

5

Anemia - symptoms, causes, etc.

Lack of sufficient red blood cells or hemoglobin.

Symptoms - fatigue. Pale. Etc.

Causes - decreases production or increased destruction of red blood cells or hemoglobin. Or loss of RBC's.

6

Nutrients involved in RBC synthesis

Iron, copper, vitamin b, vitamin c, vitamin e.

7

White blood cells - properties.

Amoeboid movement - like an ameba.

Diapedesis - squeeze out of blood capillaries, walls.

Chemotaxis - attraction to foreign invaders, dead cells. WBCs are attracted to site of infection.

Phagocytosis - nom nom of cells.

8

Types of WBC's - Granulocytes

Neutrophils - most common WBC. These increase in acute infections, and are phagocytic.

Basophils - increase in allergy, release histamine and heparin.

Eosinophils - increase in allergy and parasite infestation.

9

Agranulocytes - WBC

Lymphocytes - produce antibodies.

Monocytes - increase in chronic infections, are phagocytic. In tissues they are called macrophages.

10

Types of WBC - most common to least common.

Never let monkeys eat bananas.

Never let monkeys eat bananas.

Neutrophils.
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils.

11

Platelets - thrombocytes - size. Life span, etc.

Fragments of megakaryocytes..

Cytoplasm wrapped in membrane.

Size - 1/8 diameter of RBC.

Life span is roughly one week.

12

Plasma - parts.

Serum Albumin - most common, small protein, attracts H20 into blood by osmosis.

Globulins - include antibodies.

Fibrinogen - inactive clotting protein.

Nutrients, waste products, gases - like glucose, amino acids, etc.

13

Plasma - parts, which are greater? ALL GO FAR.

Serum ALBUMIN, Globulins, Fibrinogen.

14

Blood tests - hematocrit.

Percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.

Adult females, 40%, males are at 45%

Put blood in tube and spin in centrifuge.

15

Hemoglobin measurement

Grams Hb/100 ml blood

1/3 hematocrit

15 grams.

16

Write blood cell count

Count of volume of WBC.

17

Leucocytosis and Leukopenia

Leucocytosis - excess WBC, means infection.

Leukopenia - decreased WBC count. Decreases with chemotherapy.

18

Differential WBC counts.

Elevated neutrophils?
Elevated monocytes?

Elevated neutrophils would mean an acute infection - bacterial.

Elevated monocytes would mean a chronic infection.

elevated basophils would mean allergies.

19

Hemopoiesis

Blood cell formation in lymphatic tissues, spleen, etc.

20

Jaundice

Excess bilirubin in blood.