What are the 2 parts of the skeleton?
- Axial - brain, thoracic cavity + spine - Appendicular - upper + lower limbs
What is the anatomical position?
- Straight back with head and eyes facing forwards - Eyes by the side with forearms and hands facing forwards
What are the anatomical planes?
- Sagittal - Left and right (imagine archer) - Coronal (frontal) - Front and back (anterior and posterior) - Axial (transverse) - Superior and inferior - Oblique = any diagonal section
What do medial and lateral mean?
- Medial = closer - Lateral = further, e.g. humerus lateral to rib cage
What do anterior and posterior mean?
- Anterior = front - Posterior = back, e.g. heart posterior to rib cage
What do superficial and deep mean?
- Superficial = closer to skin - Deep = further from skin, e.g. rib cage superficial to heart
What do proximal and distal mean?
- Proximal = towards where the limb attaches to the body - Distal = away from where the limb attaches to the body. ONLY USED TO DESCRIBE 2 POINTS ON THE SAME LIMB.
What do ipsilateral and contralateral mean?
- Ipsilateral = same side - Contralateral = opposite side
What do supine and prone mean?
Both are variations of the anatomical position. - Supine = Person laying on back - Prone = Person laying on front
What is a joint? What are the 3 types of joint?
A joint is a connection between 2 or more bones, irrespective of whether movement can occur. 3 types (fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial)
What is a fibrous joint?
Bones in a fibrous joint are unified by fibrous tissue. No joint cavity. Movement depends on length of fibrous fibres.
What is a cartilaginous joint? What are the two types?
Bones are united by cartilage. No joint cavity. - Primary = united by hyaline cartilage, some flexibility - Secondary = bones covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage + united by fibrocartilage = strength
What is a synovial joint?
- Bones in synovial joint united by joint capsule enclosing a joint cavity. - Joint capsule composed of outer fibrous layer and inner synovial membrane - Bones are covered by articulate cartilage - Joint cavity contains synovial fluid = offers more movement
What are the different types of synovial joint?
- Plane = 2 flat surfaces, one direction - Hinge = Flexion and extension only - Condyloid = 2 directions - Saddle = articulate surfaces are convex and concave, 2 directions but wider range than condyloid - Ball and socket = multiple axes of movement - Pivot = rotation around central axis
What are the 3 bones that make up the knee joint?
Femur, patella and tibia. Knee joint = synovial hinge joint
Which cartilaginous disk is used to increase contact between the femur and tibia?
Meniscus. Femur = condyla + tibia = flat
Which four ligaments support the knee joint?
Lateral and medial collateral ligaments (either side). 2 cruciate ligaments deep within.
What are the lateral and medial collateral ligaments?
- Medial collateral = within joint capsule, so tear = bleeding within - Lateral collateral = outside joint capsule, so tear = bleeding outside - Both stabilise femur + tibia, still knee joint from coming apart
What are the cruciate ligaments?
- Anterior cruciate ligament = anterior aspect of tibia to posterior aspect of femur - Posterior cruciate ligament = posterior aspect of tibia to anterior aspect of femur, so cross over each other - Stop the forwards and backwards movement of knees
What are the three types of muscle?
- Cardiac = heart and unique, e.g. doesn’t tire easily. Involuntary - Smooth = involuntary, controlled by autonomic nervous system. Concerned with bodily functions, e.g. digestion and blood pressure control - Skeletal = conscious control, function is to move skeleton. Has 2 or more attachments to bony skeleton. Origin = muscle that moves least when contracted, insertion = other end
What are the different types of muscle structures?
- Strap = fibres parallel + long - Fusiform = similar time strap (parallel) but larger muscle bulk (muscle belly) - Fan = parallel fibres but flat - Circular = allow closing and opening, e.g. eye muscles - Pennate = fibres contract at an angle to direction of action of muscle = allows more fibres = more power. Uni, bi (two angles) and multi (many angles)
Will the strap or pennate expend more energy?
Strap as longer, so contracts across whole length. Bipennate = lots of power.
What controls skeletal muscles?
Nerves. Without a nervous supply, skeletal muscle cells won’t contract
What do these terms mean: - Flexion - Extension - Synergists - Antagonists - Abduction - Adduction - Circumduction - Pronation - Supination - Oppsition - Protraction - Retraction - Lateral Flexion - Inversion - Eversion
- to bend - to extend - group of muscles that act together to create joint movement - opposite of synergists - movement away from midline - movement towards midline - hand traces a circle - palm faces posteriorly (down) - palm faces anteriorly (up) - thumb can touch little finger - move forwards, e.g. jaw - move backwards - upper body bends over to the side - sole of foot faces inwards - sole of foot faces outwards
What are the similarities between the upper and lower limb?
Develop in same way, so similar arrangements: - Large bone (femur and humerus) - Two parallel bones distally (tibia-fibula lower, radius-ulna upper) - Ball and socket joints (shoulder and hip)
Why is the shoulder easier to dislocate than the hip?
Ligaments play smaller role in shoulder, hip surrounded by ‘screw-like’ formation of ligaments that increases stability. Hip joint also connects over a larger area
Why is there greater dexterity in the hand and forearm?
- Radius and ulna articulate more freely, tibia + fibula fixed together to provide stable joint for ankle - Majority of muscles found in forearm, majority of muscles found in foot
What is the spine made up of?
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral vertebra (fused to form sacrum) + 4 further vertebrae fused together to form coccyx
What unique features do the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae have that relates to their function?
- C1 (atlas) supports weight of skull, has articular surface on superior (skull) and inferior (C2) - Atlas has no body as attaches to C2 to form odontoid peg - sits behind anterior arch of atlas and held in position by cruciate ligament - odontoid peg can rotate considerably
What features does C5 contain to make it ‘typical’ of other cervical vertebrae?
3 foramin (holes) - one for spinal cord and two vertebral arteries which lie in transverse process. The spinous process (end bit) is bifid except for C7.