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Flashcards in Anatomy - Introduction Deck (100)
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1

What are the 2 parts of the skeleton?

- Axial - brain, thoracic cavity + spine - Appendicular - upper + lower limbs

2

What is the anatomical position?

- Straight back with head and eyes facing forwards - Eyes by the side with forearms and hands facing forwards

3

What are the anatomical planes?

- Sagittal - Left and right (imagine archer) - Coronal (frontal) - Front and back (anterior and posterior) - Axial (transverse) - Superior and inferior - Oblique = any diagonal section 

4

What do medial and lateral mean?

- Medial = closer - Lateral = further, e.g. humerus lateral to rib cage

5

What do anterior and posterior mean?

- Anterior = front - Posterior = back, e.g. heart posterior to rib cage

6

What do superficial and deep mean?

- Superficial = closer to skin - Deep = further from skin, e.g. rib cage superficial to heart

7

What do proximal and distal mean?

- Proximal = towards where the limb attaches to the body - Distal = away from where the limb attaches to the body. ONLY USED TO DESCRIBE 2 POINTS ON THE SAME LIMB.

8

What do ipsilateral and contralateral mean?

- Ipsilateral = same side - Contralateral = opposite side

9

What do supine and prone mean?

Both are variations of the anatomical position. - Supine = Person laying on back - Prone = Person laying on front

10

What is a joint? What are the 3 types of joint?

A joint is a connection between 2 or more bones, irrespective of whether movement can occur. 3 types (fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial)

11

What is a fibrous joint?

Bones in a fibrous joint are unified by fibrous tissue. No joint cavity. Movement depends on length of fibrous fibres.

12

What is a cartilaginous joint? What are the two types?

Bones are united by cartilage. No joint cavity. - Primary = united by hyaline cartilage, some flexibility - Secondary = bones covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage + united by fibrocartilage = strength

13

What is a synovial joint?

- Bones in synovial joint united by joint capsule enclosing a joint cavity. - Joint capsule composed of outer fibrous layer and inner synovial membrane - Bones are covered by articulate cartilage - Joint cavity contains synovial fluid = offers more movement

14

What are the different types of synovial joint?

- Plane = 2 flat surfaces, one direction - Hinge = Flexion and extension only - Condyloid = 2 directions - Saddle = articulate surfaces are convex and concave, 2 directions but wider range than condyloid - Ball and socket = multiple axes of movement - Pivot = rotation around central axis

15

What are the 3 bones that make up the knee joint?

Femur, patella and tibia. Knee joint = synovial hinge joint

16

Which cartilaginous disk is used to increase contact between the femur and tibia?

Meniscus. Femur = condyla + tibia = flat

17

Which four ligaments support the knee joint?

Lateral and medial collateral ligaments (either side). 2 cruciate ligaments deep within.

18

What are the lateral and medial collateral ligaments?

- Medial collateral = within joint capsule, so tear = bleeding within - Lateral collateral = outside joint capsule, so tear = bleeding outside - Both stabilise femur + tibia, still knee joint from coming apart

19

What are the cruciate ligaments?

- Anterior cruciate ligament = anterior aspect of tibia to posterior aspect of femur - Posterior cruciate ligament = posterior aspect of tibia to anterior aspect of femur, so cross over each other - Stop the forwards and backwards movement of knees

20

What are the three types of muscle?

- Cardiac = heart and unique, e.g. doesn’t tire easily. Involuntary - Smooth = involuntary, controlled by autonomic nervous system. Concerned with bodily functions, e.g. digestion and blood pressure control - Skeletal = conscious control, function is to move skeleton. Has 2 or more attachments to bony skeleton. Origin = muscle that moves least when contracted, insertion = other end

21

What are the different types of muscle structures?

- Strap = fibres parallel + long - Fusiform = similar time strap (parallel) but larger muscle bulk (muscle belly) - Fan = parallel fibres but flat - Circular = allow closing and opening, e.g. eye muscles - Pennate = fibres contract at an angle to direction of action of muscle = allows more fibres = more power. Uni, bi (two angles) and multi (many angles)

22

Will the strap or pennate expend more energy?

Strap as longer, so contracts across whole length. Bipennate = lots of power.

23

What controls skeletal muscles?

Nerves. Without a nervous supply, skeletal muscle cells won’t contract

24

What do these terms mean: - Flexion - Extension - Synergists - Antagonists - Abduction - Adduction - Circumduction - Pronation - Supination - Oppsition - Protraction - Retraction - Lateral Flexion - Inversion - Eversion

- to bend - to extend - group of muscles that act together to create joint movement - opposite of synergists - movement away from midline - movement towards midline - hand traces a circle - palm faces posteriorly (down) - palm faces anteriorly (up) - thumb can touch little finger - move forwards, e.g. jaw - move backwards - upper body bends over to the side - sole of foot faces inwards - sole of foot faces outwards

25

What are the similarities between the upper and lower limb?

Develop in same way, so similar arrangements: - Large bone (femur and humerus) - Two parallel bones distally (tibia-fibula lower, radius-ulna upper) - Ball and socket joints (shoulder and hip)

26

Why is the shoulder easier to dislocate than the hip?

Ligaments play smaller role in shoulder, hip surrounded by ‘screw-like’ formation of ligaments that increases stability. Hip joint also connects over a larger area

27

Why is there greater dexterity in the hand and forearm?

- Radius and ulna articulate more freely, tibia + fibula fixed together to provide stable joint for ankle - Majority of muscles found in forearm, majority of muscles found in foot

28

What is the spine made up of?

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral vertebra (fused to form sacrum) + 4 further vertebrae fused together to form coccyx

29

What unique features do the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae have that relates to their function?

- C1 (atlas) supports weight of skull, has articular surface on superior (skull) and inferior (C2) - Atlas has no body as attaches to C2 to form odontoid peg - sits behind anterior arch of atlas and held in position by cruciate ligament - odontoid peg can rotate considerably

30

What features does C5 contain to make it ‘typical’ of other cervical vertebrae?

3 foramin (holes) - one for spinal cord and two vertebral arteries which lie in transverse process. The spinous process (end bit) is bifid except for C7.