Anatomy Lecture 1 -- The Heart External Features and Coronary Circulation Flashcards Preview

Block C - Circulation > Anatomy Lecture 1 -- The Heart External Features and Coronary Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Lecture 1 -- The Heart External Features and Coronary Circulation Deck (50):
1

3 pericardial coverings

Fibrous pericardium Serous pericardium (parietal and visceral lamina)

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2 ligaments of the heart

Sternopericardial Pericardial phrenic

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4 diseases related to the pericardium

Pericarditis Cardiac tamponade Hemocardium Chronic constructive pericarditis

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6 potential causes of pericarditis

Bacteria, fungus, virus, parasites Cancer, autoimmune

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Characteristic of the fibrous pericardium and the effect

Very stiff = does not allow expansion of the heart past this limit

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Effect of pericarditis

Enlargement of pericardial cavity = Increased pressure = effusion into PC = expansion towards ventricles = ventricles constricted --> potential death

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Define cardiac tamponade

Compression of the heart

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Cause of cardiac tamponade

Restriction of incoming blood flow (i.e. from pulmonary veins)

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Effect of cardiac tamponade

Ventricles pump much less

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2 treatments for cardiac tamponade

Pericardiocentesis (remove juice) by cardiac notch or just under parasternal line below xiphoid IV antibiotics

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2 potential causes of hemocardium

Violence (i.e. puncture = blood in P.C.) Damaged heart wall

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Effect of chronic constrictive pericarditis

P.C. obliterated by adhesions between covers Wall of pericardial sac is very thick (often occludes whole cavity)

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Define inflammation

Process whereby fluid and white blood cells accumulate at a site of injury Fluid and WBC can ooze out of nearby blood vessels (so can only occur in vascularized tissues)

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3 tubes branching off the aortic arch (from right to left)

Brachiocephalic trunk Carotid Subclavian artery

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What part(s) of the body does the brachiocephalic trunk supply blood to?

Right side of head and neck, right arm

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What part(s) of the body does the carotid supply blood to?

Left head and neck

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What part(s) of the body does the subclavian artery supply blood to?

Left arm

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2 incoming vessels to right atrium

Superior Vena Cava Inferior Vena Cava

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From what body parts does the SVC bring blood?

Upper torso area

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From what body parts does the IVC bring blood?

Abdomen and lower limbs

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Define the auricles

2 flaps of heart tissue that come off the atria Embryological leftovers that are no longer functional after birth (look like cockerspaniel ears)

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2 borders of the heart

Right atrium Left atrium

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3 surfaces of the heart

Anterior = right ventricle Base = left atrium Diaphragmatic = right ventricle and left ventricle

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Where is the apex of the heart?

Bottom of left ventricle

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Where does the sound of the heart come from when you use a stethoscope?

Apex

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Variation in coronary arteries

May have 1 - 3 coronary arteries (usually have 2) 3rd can be anywhere Branches are variable

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Cause of myocardial infarct

Occlusion of flow in coronary arteries. Would be fixed by a functional anastomosis, allowing for retrograde flow, except that the vessels do not connect (so do not have this flow)

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When can a person survive a myocardial infarct?

If the occlusion is in a secondary branch since only the associated tissue dies, not the whole heart

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Where do the coronary arteries originate?

At the very beginning of the aorta where the aortic valve forms

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Identify this structure

Brachiocephalic trunk

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Identify this structure

Carotid artery

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Identify this structure

Subclavian artery

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Pulmonary trunk

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Pulmonary arteries

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Superior Vena Cava

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Auracles

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Right Ventricle

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Left ventricle

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Right coronary artery

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Left coronary artery

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Right marginal artery

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Anterior interventricular artery

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Posterior interventricular artery

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Coronary sinus

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Great cardiac vein

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Right marginal vein

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Middle cardiac vein

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(More anterior)

Left marginal vein

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Small cardiac vein

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More posterior

Left posterior ventricular vein