Anatomy- Nervous system and Nervous tissue Flashcards Preview

Biology > Anatomy- Nervous system and Nervous tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy- Nervous system and Nervous tissue Deck (26):
1

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Nervous System that extends outside the CNS.

2

PNS-Sensory(afferent) division:

Nerves that convey(give) impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors


Afferent or sensory neurons receive information from the outside (sensory receptors) and sends them to other neurons so the body could produce a response

3

PNS-Sensory Neurons

Link body parts to CNS

4

PNS-Somatic Afferent Fibers:

Give impulses to the skin,skeletal muscles & joints.


Afferent or sensory neurons receive information from the outside (sensory receptors) and sends them to other neurons so the body could produce a response

5

PNS-Visceral afferent fibers:

Give impulses from visceral organs( organs and ventral body cavity)


Afferent or sensory neurons receive information from the outside (sensory receptors) and sends them to other neurons so the body could produce a response

6

Motor(efferent) division:

Transmit impulses from the CNS to effector organs( muscles and glands)

Efferent neurons or motor neurons receive information from other neurons and sends that information to effectors (muscles,glands), which produce a response.

7

Motor(efferent) division:
-Motor neurons:

Activate muscle contraction and glandular secretion

8

Motor(efferent) division:
-Somatic Nervous System(voluntary nervous system):

Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles.


Efferent neurons or motor neurons receive information from other neurons and sends that information to effectors (muscles,glands), which produce a response.

9

Motor(efferent) division:
-Autonomic Nervous System(ANS) aka involuntary nervous system

Visceral motor neurons that regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.


Efferent neurons or motor neurons receive information from other neurons and sends that information to effectors (muscles,glands), which produce a response.

10

One division of ANS: Sympathetic

"Fight or Flight" - accelerates circulatory, respiratory system

11

One division of the ANS: Parasympathetic

"Rest and digest"

12

Neuroglia of CNS: Astrocytes

Star-shaped, most abundant & versatile cells

-anchors neurons to capillaries and aid

-control the chemical environment - clean up potassium ions and neurotransmitters

13

Neuroglia of CNS: Microglia

Small oval cells with long "thorny" processes

-Can transform into phagocytic cells and engul/break down bacteria and cell debris

14

Ependymal Cells:

Are ciliated. Line central cavities of brain/spinal cord.

15

Neuroglia of CNS: Oligodendrocytes

Produce myelin

16

White Matter

Myelinated fiber tracts of CNS.

17

Gray Matter

Unmyelinated fibers in CNS

18

Action Potential

Saluatory conduction: Myelin sheath

Insulates against leakage and charge

Much FASTER than in Unmyelinated axons.

19

Synapse:

Junction that mediates transfer of information from neuron to neuron or effector(muscle gland)

20

Synapse: Presynaptic neuron

Conducts impulses toward synapse

21

Synapse: Postsynaptic Neuron

Transmits signals away from the synapse

22

Neurotransmitters: acetyl choline(ACh)

Released to neuromuscular junctions(excitatory for skeletal muscle; inhibitory for cardiac muscle)

**Excitatory neurotransmitters are not necessarily exciting – they are what stimulate the brain. Those that calm the brain and help create balance are called inhibitory. Inhibitory neurotransmitters balance mood and are easily depleted when the excitatory neurotransmitters are overactive.

23

Neurotransmitters: bio genetic amines:

Catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and indolamines(histamine and serotonin)

24

Neurotransmitters: Amino Acids

GABA, glycine, asparate, and glutamate.

25

Neurotransmitters: peptides

Substance P, endorphins, and enkephalins

26

Central Nervous System(CNS)

Brain and spinal cord