Anatomy of joints I-the upper extremity week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of joints I-the upper extremity week 1 Deck (53):
1

sprain

stretched or torn ligament

2

strain

muscle (or its tendon) which causes action at a joint(s) has been stretched or torn

3

What is a dislocation? What are some of the most commonly dislocated joints?

two skeletal elements at a joint have been forcefully separated. typicaly resutls in deformity and immobility and requires immediate action. shoulder and fingers are most commonly dislocated joints

4

What is a shoulder separation? How is its severity determined?

1. condition specific to the acromioclavicular joint where the articulation btwn the clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula is disturbed and the ends of these bones become separated

2. graded based on severity of damage to the ligaments at this joint 

5

joint

site where 2 skeletal elements meet

6

Muscles that cross a joint will cause _____ at that joint. What is the best way to visualize the action of a muscle?

1. movement

2. visualize insertion of the muscle moving toward the origin

7

Blood vessels and nerves that cross a joint typically contribute ____ _____ to the joint.

articular branches

8

______ spanning a joint provide stability to that joint.

Ligaments

9

What comprises the axial and appendicular skeletons?

axial skeleton: bones of the skull, vertebral column including the sacrum, ribs, and sternum

appendicular skelton: bones of the limbs, scapulae, clavicles, each hemipelvis (fused ilium, ischium, pubic bones)

10

What are the characteristics of synovial joints? Give examples.

  • narrow joint cavity btwn skeletal elements
  • cartilage (typically hyaline cartilage) covers ends of skeletal elements
  • bony surfaces do not have direct contact
  • joint capsule and synovial membrane surrounds all synovial joints. the membrane is highly vascular and produces synovial fluid within the joint cavity which serves as lubrication of the articulating (joint) surfaces
  • described based on shape and movement

knee, hip, elbow

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11

True or false: In osteoarthritis, changes to the cartilage, bone, and synovial fluid occur.

True.

12

What are characteristics of solid joints? List examples.

  • have no joint cavity and are linked together by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage (typically fibrocartilage)
  • movements are more restricted than at synovial joints. i.e. solid joints are more stable

see pic for examples

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13

What bones are the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand composed of?

arm: humerus

forearm: radius and ulna

wrist and hand: carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

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14

What 2 parts is the shoulder composed of?

1. shoulder girdle: clavicle and scapula

2. proximal end of the humerus

15

What 4 parts is the upper extremity composed of?

1. shoulder: consists of shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula) and the proximal end of the humerus

2. arm (humerus)

3. forearm (radius and ulna)

4. wrist and hand (carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges)

16

In anatomic position, where are the bones of the forearms located in respect to the body?

radius: lateral

ulna: medial

17

While the majority of movement of the upper limb occurs at the _______ joint, full ROM of the upper limb results from additional contributory motions of the _____ and ____ (2 bones) through the _____ and _____ joints.

1. glenohumeral

2. scapula

3. clavicle

4. sternoclavicular

5. acromioclavicular

18

What comprises the shoulder complex?

glenoumeral joint

sternoclavicular joint

acromioclavicular joint

scapula

19

What joint provides the only point of attachment for the upper extremitiy to the axial skeleton? What is primarily responsible for securing the shoulder complex to the body? What is the result of all of this?

1. sternoclavicular joint

2. muscles

3. reason for increased mobility of upper extremities vs lower extremities

20

What joint provides the only structural site of attachment of the scapula to the rest of the body?

sternoclavicular joint

21

Identify the landmarks in this picture. 

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22

True or false: The more tightly 2 bones come together at at joint, the less mobile the joint is.

True.

23

What 2 bones come together at the acromioclavicular joint? How mobile is this joint? What motions of the scapula is this joint partially responsible for?

1. acromion process and clavicle

2. not very mobile bc bones are in close proximity

3. winging, tipping, and rotation of the scapula

24

What is the glenohumeral joint composed of? How mobile is this joint and what contributes to its amount of mobility?

1. head of humerus and glenoid cavity

2. very mobile due to little interaction btwn head of humerus and glenoid cavity

25

Identify the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus.

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26

Identify the landmarks in this picture.

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27

Identify the landmarks of this picture.

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28

True or false: The glenohumeral joint is highly dependent on ligaments to stay in place.

True. bc head of humerus has little interaction with glenoid cavity

29

Identify the landmarks of this picture. 

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30

What is the glenoid labrum and what is its purpose?

a ring like fibrocartilaginous structure that serves to deepen the shallow glenoid fossa. there bc the humeral head is large compared to shallow glenoid fossa

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31

What are the glenohumeral ligaments and what is their purose?

fibrous bands evident only on the interior surface of the joint capsule. serve to reinforce the anterior portion of the joint capsule

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32

The joint capsule of the glenoumeral joint is reinforced by ____ ____ musculature except _____. Here the capsule is lax and lies in folds when the arm is adducted but is taut when the arm is abducted.

1. rotator cuff

2. inferiorly

33

What is the coracohumeral ligament and what is its purpose?

strong band that passes from the coracoid process to the anterior aspect of the greater tubercle of the humerus. it strengthens the capsule superiorly.

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34

What is the transverse humeral ligament and what is its purpose?

passes obliquely from the greater to lesser tubercle of the humerus, converting the intertubercular groove into a canal that contains the tendon of the longhead of the biceps brachii muscle. the transverse humeral ligament holds the the tendon in place during movements at the glenohumeral joint.

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35

What are the 4 movements of the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint?

1. flexion/extesion

2. abduction/adduction

3. medial rotation/lateral rotation

4. circumduction: combo of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

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36

What are the movements of the scapula?

1. retraction/protraction

2. rotation: abduction/adduction

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37

_____ _____ (type of movement) of the scapula is necessary for successful abduction at the glenohumerlal joint.

upward rotation. glenohumeral joint only gets you so far with abduction then need upward rotation of the scapula to abduct the rest of the way

38

The elbow joint is a complex joint with 3 separate articulations which share a common synovial cavity. Name the 3 articulations.

1. articulation btwn the trochelar notch of the ulna and trochlea of the humerus (humeroulnar joint)

2. articulation btwn the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus (humeroradial joint)

3. articulation btwn the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna (proximal radio-ulnar joint)

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39

Identify the landmarks of this picture. 

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40

Identify the landmarks of this picture.  (ligaments of elbow)

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41

What is nursemaids elbow? How may it be fixed?

1. Common injury that occurs in small children when arm is jerked upward with the forarm pronated, tearing the annular ligament from its loose attachment on the radial neck. the ligament may become trapped btwn the radial head and the capitulum of the humerus

2. supinating the forearm and flexing the elbow

 

42

What articulations are the proximal radio-ulnar joint and distal radio-ulnar joints composed of? Where are they located in the body?

proximal radio-ulnar joint: articulation btwn the head of the radius and the ulna. located at the elbow

distal radio-ulnar joint: articulation btwn the head of the ulna and the radius. located at the wrist

43

The elbow joint is a hinge joint formed by what two joints?

humeroradial

humeroulnar

44

What are the movements of the elbow joint?

flexion

extension

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45

What are the movements of the proximal and distal radio-ulnar joints?

pronation and supination. note that the ulna is stationary and the radius rotates about it

pronation: radius rotates inwardly toward the ulna

supination: radius rotates outwardly away from the ulna

think of supination as holding a bowl of soup

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46

The wrist is the proximal segment of the hand. It is a complex of 8 carpal bones articulating proximally with the _____ via the "wrist joint" and distally with _____.

1. forerarm

2. metacarpals

 

47

What is another name for the wrist joint? What kind of joint is it (solid or synovial)? What bones participate?

1. radiocarpal joint

2. synovial

3. joint btwn the distal end of the radius, an articular disk, and the proximal row of carpal bones (excluding the pisiform)

not that the ulna does not participate in the wrist joint!

48

What are the names of the 8 carpal bones? 

She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her

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49

Where do synovial joints exist in the wrist and hand?

1. Radiocarpal joint: btwn distal end of radius and proximal or of carpal bones (exluding pisiform)

2. intercarpal joints (btwn carpals)

3. carpometacarpal joints: distal row of carpal bones and base of metacarpals

4. intermetacarpal joints: btwn adjacent metacarpals

5. metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs): btwn metacarpals and phalanges

6. interphalangeal joints: btwn phalanges of a given digit. have proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs) and distal interphalangeal joints (DIPs)

50

Name the bones of the hand including MCPs, PIPs, and DIPs.

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51

What are the movements of the wrist?

abduction/adduction

extension/flexion

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52

What are the movements of the hand?

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53

What are the movements of the thumb?

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