Anatomy of the basal Ganglia and Cerebellum, and control of Movement Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Anatomy of the basal Ganglia and Cerebellum, and control of Movement > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the basal Ganglia and Cerebellum, and control of Movement Deck (29)
1

Name the three layers of the cerebellar cortex (from outer to inner)

Molecular layer
Purkinje cell layer
Granular layer

2

If the cerebellum infratentorial or supratentorial?

Infra tentorial

3

How to afferent projections (inputs) enter the cerebellum?

Cerebellar peduncles

4

What layer of the cerebellum do afferent signals go to mostly?

The granular cell layer

5

What attaches the cerebellum to the brainstem?

3 stalks called peduncles

6

What are the three peduncles made of?

White matter

7

Are the deep cerebellar nuclei white or grey matter?

Grey

8

What part of the cerebellum transmits signals to the rest of the brain?

Deep cerebellar nuclei

9

What symptoms would a patient get if they have a midline cerebellar lesion?

Disturbance of posture control (patient will fall over when standing or sitting)

10

Do the cerebellar hemispheres control the ipsilateral or contralateral side of the body?

Ipsilateral

11

What symptoms are seen in a unilateral hemispheric lesion of the cerebellum?

Disturbance of limb coordiantion resulting in tremor and unsteady gait.

12

What are the symptoms of bilateral cerebellar dysfunction?

Slowed, slurred speech, bilateral incoordiantion of the arms and staggering

13

What basal ganglia make up the lenticular nucleus?

Putamen
Globus Pallidus

14

What basal ganglia make up the striatum?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen

15

Name all the basal ganglia

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Subthalamic nucleus
Substnatia nigra

16

What basal ganglia sits in the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle?

Caudate nucleus

17

How many substantia nigra are there?

2; one of either side of the midline

18

What does the substantia nigra produce?

Dopamine

19

What condition is characterised by atrophy of the substantia nigra

parkinsons disease

20

How do the basal ganglia work with the motor cortex to enhance normal movement?

The direct pathway; this is a neurone chain that enhances the outflow of the thalamus and enhances the desired movement.

21

How do the basal ganglia work with the motor cortex to suppress unwanted movement?

Indirect pathway; this is a neurone chain that inhibits the outflow of the thalamus .

22

Does basal ganglia dysfunction affect the ipsilateral or contralateral side of the body?

Contralateral

23

What are some of the symptoms of basal ganglia dysfuntion?

Changes in muscle tone
Dyskinesis
Tremor
Chorea

24

What two disease are associated with basal ganglia dysfuction?

Huntingtons
Parkinsons

25

Do the cerebellar hemispheres influence the ipsilateral or contralateral side of the body?

Ipsilateral

26

A patient presents with slow, slurred speech, bilateral limb incoordination and a wide based gait.

Bilateral cerebellar dysfunction

27

A patient presents saying the fall over when standing or sitting. What part of their brain is most likely damaged?

Vermis of the cerebellum

28

Do lesions on the basal ganglia lead to disturbances on the ipsilateral or contralateral side of the body?

Contraleteral

29

Changes in muscle tone, dyskinesis, tremor, chorea and myoclonus are due to a problem is which aspect of the brain?

Basal ganglia