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Flashcards in Anatomy Of The Respiratory System Deck (14)
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Where does the trachea start and end?

Lower border of the cricoid cartilage
Dividing into left and right main bronchi at t4/t5 carina


What are the openings in the diaphragm?

T8 - vena cava
T10 - oesophagus
T12 - aorta through the aortic hiatus


Where are the intercostal neurovascular structures found?
So, where should a needle be inserted in a pleural aspiration or insertion of a chest drain?

They lie in the intercostal groove at the lower border of the rib
Upper border of a rib to avoid injury


Describe the anterior and posterior intercostal arteries

Anterior- branch off from the internal thoracic artery, which branches off the subclavian artery
Posterior- branch off directly from the thoracic aorta


Describe the anterior and posterior intercostal veins

Anterior-branch off from internal thoracic vein, which branches off from the brachiocephalic trunk
Posterior-right- they drain into the azygous system, which drains into superior vena cava
Left- drain into accessory azygous vein, then into hemizygous, then into azygous system


What accessory muscles are used in inspiration?

Sternocleidomastoid elevates the sternum
Scalene muscles elevates and fixes the upper ribs


How many ribs are there?
Where do they articulate?

They articulate posteriorly with the vertebral column to form costo-vertebral joints
Anteriorly : 1-7 sternum by costal cartilage
8-10 costal cartilage alone but not directly to the sternum
11-12 end free in the abdominal muscles


What are the divisions of the airways from the trachea down to the alveoli?

Left and right main bronchus
Left (U,L) and right (U,M,L) main lobar bronchi
Segmental bronchi
Terminal bronchioles
Alveolar ducts


What is meant by the upper respiratory tract?

The part of the respiratory tract with lies above the lower border of the cricoid cartilage, including the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx)


What is meant by the glottis?

Vocal cords and aperture between the cords


What is meant by the rima glottides?

The aperture between the two vocal cords


What do the bronchial arteries supply?

Supply blood for nutrition of structures making up the root of the lungs, the supporting tissues of the lungs and the visceral pleura

Left - directly off the thoracic aorta
Right - off the third intercostal artery


Which muscles are found in the intercostal spaces?
Which is most superficial and which is most deep?

M.S. External intercostals (inspiratory muscles)
Internal intercostals (forced expiration)
Separated by intercostal bundle (neurovascular)
M.D. Innermost intercostals (forced expiration)

All innervated by intercostal nerves


What is the function of the vocal cords as part of the respiratory system?

Help stop foreign objects from reaching the lungs, they also close to build up pressure when coughing is required