Anatomy Of The Upper Airway Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy Of The Upper Airway Deck (24):
1

Which cartilages make up the larynx?

3 unpaired: epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid
3 paired: arytenoid, cuneiforms, corniculates

2

What is the structure of the epiglottis?

Fibrocartilage (highly flexible)
Attached by thyroepiglottic ligament to back of the thyroid

2

What is the structure of the thyroid cartilage?

2 lamina meet at laryngeal prominence V 'Adam's apple'
The superior horn are attached to the hyoid by ligaments
The inferior horn form a synovial joint with the cricoid
The oblique line has hyoid attachments

3

What is the structure of the cricoid cartilage?

Complete ring, 2 articular facets on either side to articulate with the arytenoid cartilage and the inferior horn of the thyroid

4

What is the structure of the vocal cords?

They are formed by the upper free edge of cricothyroid ligament
Anteriorly, the deep surface angle of the thyroid cartilage
Posteriorly, the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage

5

What are the layers of the vocal cords?

Covered by stratified squamous epithelia
Beneath, oedematous space (Reinke's space)
No submucosa - white appearance
Consists of vocalis muscle and vocal ligament

6

What are the ligaments and membranes of the larynx?

Thyrohyoid, cricothyroid, cricotracheal

7

What is the structure of the arytenoid cartilages?

3 sided pyramids
Vocal process - projects anteriorly
Muscular process - projects laterally
They are responsible for opening and closing the vocal cords

8

What is the arterial supply and venous drainage of the larynx?

Superior and inferior laryngeal arteries off thyroid
Corresponding veins

9

What is the nerve supply to the larynx?

Superior laryngeal nerve (internal and external branches)
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Both branches of the vagus nerve CNX

10

What happens in a cricothyroidectomy?

Incision through median cricothyroid ligament to maintain patency of the airways

11

What does the cricothyroid muscle do?
How is it innervated?

Stretches and tenses the vocal cords
External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve

12

What does the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle do?
How is it innervated?

Adduction of the vocal cords
RLN CNX

13

What does the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle do?
How is it innervated?

Abduction of the vocal cords
RLN CNX

14

What is meant by the supraglottic space?

The space between the inferior surface of the epiglottis to the vestibular fold (false vocal cords)

15

What is meant by the infraglottic space?

The space from the true vocal cords to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage

16

What is meant by Reinke's space?

Give one example of clinical relevance

Space between the vocal ligament and the squamous epithelia
It vibrates during phonation

Oedema : deep and hoarse voice

17

Give five causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve damage

Cervical lymphadenopathy
Arch of aorta aneurysm
Carotid aneurysm
Apical lung tumour
Thyroid cancer

18

What is the basic structure of the pharynx?

Extends from the cranial base down to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (C6)
Consists of three parts: nasopharynx, oropharnyx, laryngopharynx
Consists of two muscle layers: inner longitudinal and outer circular
The outer circular layer consists of superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors, they contract to propel food when swallowing

19

What can structures (I.e foreign objects) become lodged within the pharynx?

Piriform fossa
Epiglottic vallecula

20

What is the basic structure of the nasopharynx?

Extends from the cranial base to the soft palate (C1)
Lined by pseudostratified epithelia
Sensory innervation by CNV2

21

What is the basic structure of the oropharnyx?

Posterior to the mouth
Extends from the soft palate to the superior border of the epiglottis (C2-C3)
Sensory innervated by the glossopharnygeal nerve
Lined by non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelia

22

What is the basic structure of the laryngopharynx?

Behind the larynx
Extends from the superior border of the epiglottis down to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (C4-C6)
Continues down in to the oesophagus
Lined by non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelia
Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve

23

What is the difference between stertor and stridor?

Stertor - obstruction above the level of the larynx

Stridor - obstruction of the airway at of below the larynx