Anemias Flashcards Preview

Pharmacy > Anemias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anemias Deck (23):
1

Anemia signs

Pallor
tachycardia to move oxygen around

Men Hgb below 13
Women Hgb below 12

2

Causes of decreased RBC (anemia)

Iron
vitB12, folate
Copper

Thalassemia
Erythropoietin deficiency, hypothyroid
Sickle cell
Sideroblastic

3

Iron deficient

Cells are pale, Hypochromic
small - iron lacking in the center of the cell

High total iron binding capacity b/c empty mitt
Low ferritin stores

Shrunken
Low MCV
Low MCH

4

VitB12, Folate deficiency

B stands for big

High MCV
High MCH

5

B12 deficiency symptoms

Anemia, pancytopenia

Neurological symptoms due to lack of methionine formation (neuron integrity)

Hypersegmented poly

6

Anemia symptoms

Fatigue, shortness of breath
Angina - lack of O2 to heart
Tachycardia
Dizziness

7

Folate deficiency

no neuropathy symptoms

8

High reticulocyte count

Sign of hemolysis, increased destruction

Also G6PD deficiency

9

Low reticulocyte count

Sign of hypoproliferation, decreased production of RBC

10

Functional iron deficiency

Adequate iron stores, but insufficient use to erythroid precursors

Lab values High TIBC, low MCV, low MCH

Give IV iron to be better utilized

11

Risk factors for iron deficiency anemia

Vegetarian diet
Menstruating, pregnant
Children
Excessive exercise athlete
Low stomach acid
Ulcers, Crohn's,
NSAIDs

12

Drugs that decrease iron absorption

PPI, H2RA
Cholestyramine
Doxycycline

13

IDA treatment

120mg/day x 3 months

14

Sources of folic acid (vitB9)

Folic foliage

Vegetables fruits, fortified breads cereal

Treatment: 1mg/day

15

Vitamin B12 sources

Treatment 1-2mg/day PO/IM

Diet: meat, fish, poultry, fortified cereal

16

Chronic kidney disease anemia: hemoglobin goals

Hgb goal is 11-12g/dL

Treat ESA if less than 10 until over 11

CHOIR: 11.3 is ideal goal
CREATE: start less than 10.5, until 11.5

17

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic transfusion

Chemotherapy, radiation
Toxins, autoimmune
Aspirin, lisinopril, captopril, chlorpromazine

1) cyclosporine immunosuppression

Transfusion (CIA)
Risk: reaction, infection, CHF, iron overload
Benefit: rapid Hgb increase of 1 and improved fatigue, possible survival benefit

18

Inherited anemias : sickle cell disease infection preventative care

Annual retinal examination
PCV13, PPSV23
Pen VK 125mg prophylaxis until age 3
Erythromycin if penicillin allergy
Folic acid Vit B

19

Recurrent SCD pain

Hydroxyurea

20

Medications to avoid in hemolytic G6PD deficient anemia

Antimalarial drugs- hydroxychloroquine
Aspirin, NSAIDs
Nitrofurantoin
Sulfa drugs
Quinidine, quinine

21

Inflammatory anemia

Infection

Inflammatory occurrence, poor utilization
Hepcidin blocks iron release from stores

High ferritin, low TIBC

22

Pernicious anemia

Treat with IM B12 1-2mg

23

Erythropoietin stimulating agent goal

Avoid transfusion