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Flashcards in Anesthetics 2 Deck (51):
1

Used for rapid induction of anesthesia which is maintained by an inhalation agent. Preanesthetic sedation. Anesthesia for minor prodecures

IV anesthetics

2

Less hangover, more rapid recovery. Not analgesic.
Used for outpatient procedures. Milk of amnesia

Propofol

3

Potentiates GABA signaling. 1/3 become hypotensive after bolus (more pronounced in elderly). Respiratory depressant (can induce apnea)

Propofol

4

Serious side effect with high mortality rate
Dysrhythmia, heart failure, hyperkalemia, lipemia, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobunuria with renal failure

Propofol related infusion syndrome

5

Lower doses of propofol needed with concomittant _________ use. Because of increased sedative or anesthetic effects. More pronounced decreases in systolic, diastolic, cardiac output, and mean arterial pressures

opioid

6

_______ and propofol may cause serious bradycardia in pediatric pts

fentanyl

7

__________ with propofol may cause seizures in pts w/o history of epilepsy

Alfentanil

8

Etomidate _______ cerebrovascular blood flow to the brain. Advantage for _______ type surgeries

decreases
brain/neural

9

Thiopental, methohexital, and thiamyl are

barbiturates

10

Ultra short acting
Used for induction and sedative effects
No analgesia or muscle relaxation
No antagonist in overdose

Barbiturates

11

Contraindicated in porphyria

barbiturates

12

Barbiturates potentiate _______ activity at the _____ channel

GABA
GABA - A channel

13

Diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam are

benzodiazepines

14

Reduce anxiety, prevent convulsions, and facilitate amnesia while causing sedation

Benzodiazepines

15

_____________ antagonist is Flumazenil

Benzodiazepine

16

Fentanyl, morphine, and sulfentanil are

opioids

17

Cause analgesia.
Used in cardiac surgery as CO and contractility are maintained

Opioids

18

Opioid antagonist used in OD is

naloxone

19

Atropine, scopolamine, and glycopyrrolate are

anticholinergics

20

Used to combat secretions and prevent vagal effects

anticholinergics

21

More effective antisialogogue (anti-salivation) than atropine

scopolamine

22

Longer acting. Less sedation than scopolamine. More effective antisalivation than atropine

Glycopyrrolate

23

Antisialogogue

anti-salivation

24

Neuroleptic/antipsychotic reduces motor activity and anxiety. Produces indifference to surroundings

Droperidol

25

Droperidol and _____________ cause neuroleptananalgesia
Used for minor surgical procedures, radiology procedures, burn dressing, and endoscopy

fentanyl

26

______ and droperidol and fentanyl cause neuroleptanesthesia

anesthetic

27

Person dissociated from environment w/o complete loss of consciousness

dissociative anesthesia

28

Used to produce dissociative anesthesia

ketamine

29

Related to phencyclidine. Blocks NMDA receptor. Causes delirium, hallucinations, irrational behavior in adults. Less likely in children.

Ketamine

30

Conscious and conversational

Stage 1 - analgesia

31

Delirium and violent behavior. Increased BP, tachycardia, tachypnea, mydriasis, increased skeletal muscle tone

Stage 2 - excitement

32

Short acting _______ given IV before inhalation anesthesia to avoid stage 2

barbiturate

33

Regular respiration, eye movements cease and become fixed, and relaxation of skeletal muscle

stage 3 - surgical anesthesia

34

Severe depression of respiratory and vasomotor centers
death

Stage 4 - medullary paralysis

35

Create loss of sensation w/o loss of consciousness
Impairment of central control of vital fns

Local anesthetics

36

Bezocaine, chlorprocaine, cocaine, procaine

esters

37

esters have

one i

38

bupivacaine, etidocaine, lidocaine, meprivacaine, prilocaine, ropivacaine

amides

39

amides have

two i's

40

Reversal inhibition of axonal nerve conduction by binding to Na channel and decreasing permeability of membrane to Na.

Local anesthetics

41

_________ fibers are more easily anesthesized
___________ nerves are blocked easier than motor neurons

small, unmyelinated
autonomic and sensory

42

Pain, temp, touch, and sympathetic activity inhibited

first

43

proprioception, muscle tone, and somatic motor activity inhibited

last

44

pain, temp, touch, and sympathetic vasomotor activity recovers

first

45

Metabolized by esterases and plasma cholinesterases

esters

46

Metabolized by amidases and liver

amines

47

Due to _________ local anesthetics can have CNS, cardiovascular, and hypersensitivity effects

absorption into systemic circulation

48

CNS effects of local anesthetics
_______ > _______> _______
Death by

stimulation
inhibition
coma
respiratory failure

49

Can cause allergic dermatitis or asthmatic attack usually due to ___________

esters

50

Epi and phenylephrine prolong action by

vasoconstriction

51

Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, are

IV anesthetics