Animal Behaviour Flashcards Preview

Biology Definitions > Animal Behaviour > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal Behaviour Deck (78):
1

Abiotic factors

No living environmental factors

2

Biotic factors

Living environmental factors

3

Innate Behaviours

Behaviour not modified by experience and is genetically determined

4

Learnt Behaviour

Behaviour that changes as a result of experience

5

Plant Growth Responses

Brought about by slow, permanent changes in cell size

6

Plant Turgor Response

Reversible cell changes brought about by changes in cell water content

7

Ecological Niche

The Niche is a combination of where an animal lives and how it lives there. The Niche reflects the role of the organism in the biological community

8

Fundamental Niche

The niche that an organism would occupy if all necessary environmental condition were present. The limits of this Niche are set by the physiological tolerances of an organism to abiotic factors

9

Realised Niche

The actual Niche an organism occupies, with the boundaries being set by biotic factors

10

Gause's Principle

No two species with identical niches can coexist long in the same place

11

Daily Rhythms

Nocturnal - active during night
Diurnal -active during day
Crepuscular - active during twilight

12

Endogenous Rhythms

Internally driven Rhythms which involve an internal clock, and is independent of changes in environment

13

Exogenous Rhythms

Regular Rhythms driven solely by external events

14

Zeitgeber

An environmental cue that sets the internal clock

15

Entrainment

The resetting of the internal clock

16

Free-running period

The period of a biological rhythm set by an internal clock

17

Phase Shifting

When the time of the peak of an endogenous rhythm is shifted

18

Photoperiodism

Regulation of seasonal activity by day length of photoperiod

19

Long day plants

Only flower when the photoperiod exceeds a critical day length

20

Short Day Plants

Only flower when the photoperiod is shorter than a critical day length

21

Day Neutral Plants

Insensitive to photoperiod

22

Phytochrome

A pigment that is reversible due to changes in red light and far red light

23

Vernalisation

Promotion of flowering by a prolonged period of cold

24

Diapause

A period of arrested development of an organism, only broken by a A period of exposure to cold

25

Taxes

A taxes is the movement of an organism either towards or away from a stimulus

26

Phototaxis

The movement towards or away from light

27

Chemotaxis

Movement towards or away from a chemical

28

Gravitaxis

Movement towards or away from gravity

29

Thermotaxis

Movement towards or away from heat

30

Thigmotaxis

Movement towards or away from an object or place of physical contact

31

Rheotaxis

Positive rheotaxis is movement against a current

32

Tropotaxis

This involves simultaneous comparison between impulse frequency from receptors on the two sides of an animal

33

Klinotaxis

The animal compares the strength of the stimulus over time rather than space

34

Kinesis

The rate of activity is determined by the intensity of the stimulus

35

Orthokinesis

Stimulus intensity governs the speed of movement, faster is unfavourable conditions and slower in favourable conditions, so animal is more likely to remain in favourable conditions

36

Klinokinesis

Stimulus intensity determines the rate of turning so the organism is more likely to remain in favourable conditions

37

Homing

The ability for an animal to return over unfamiliar territory to its home

38

Navigation

In order to find their home, animals have to navigate, and this ability is innate

39

Methods of Navigation

Landmarks
Solar Navigation
Stellar Navigation
Magnetic Fields
Chemical Navigation
Sound Navigation

40

Migration

The movement of indaviduals from one geographic location to another

41

Tropisms

Growth Response by plants to abiotic factors

42

Phototropism

Growth of the stem of a plant towards light - maximises photosynthesis

43

Gravitropism

Growth of either the radicle (down) or plume (up).

44

Hydrotropism

Growth of roots towards a water source, response ensures roots increase chances of roots obtaining water

45

Chemotropism

Growth of plant towards or away from chemicals

46

Thigmotropism

Growth of stem of climbing plants around a host plant

47

Auxins

A hormone that is produced in the tips of roots and shoots and promote elongation and differentiation in cells

48

Light Detection

Leaf detects stimulus and sends a chemical signal that passes down the shaded side of the grass and causes elongation of the shaded side

49

Mechanism of Gravity Detection

In specialised Statocyte cells, special amyloplast organelles called statoliths, which are dense and sink in response to gravity, which leads to redistribution of Auxin in the cell

50

Nastic Responses

Are rapid reversible movement responses by parts of a plant in response to a change in abiotic factors

51

Types of Nastic responses

Photonasty - collapse of leaves when exposed to high intensity of light
Nyctinasty - closing of petals
Thigmonasty - response to touch
Thermonasty - closing of flowers in low temp.

52

Commensalism

One species benefits, one is nuetral

53

Mutualism

Relationship when both species benefit to the extent that their fitness is increased

54

Exploitation

Involves a relationship between species in which one benefits and the other is harmed eg. Herbivory, Parasitism, Predation

55

Dilution Effect

In a predator attack, the larger the group, the less likely it is that any particular prey will fall victim.

56

Confusion Effect

Predators find it difficult to attack isolated prey in a large group, especially when they are rushing

57

Batesian Mimicry

A palatable animal mimics an unpalatable one, as predators avoid these animals due to unpleasant taste

58

Autotomy

The shedding of a part of the body when prey is attacked

59

Stratification

A distinct vertical pattern seen in species distribution in a community

60

Zonation

A distinct horizontal pattern seen in species distribution across a community

61

Succession

A distinct pattern over time seen in the species distribution of a community

62

Antibiosis

Relationship between members of two different species in which one species releases a substance that inhibits growth or kills another species

63

Allelopathy

An example of Antibiosis in which a plant species produces a chemical that inhibits growth or is toxic to other organisms

64

Evolutionary Fitness

A measure of an organisms reproductive success

65

Competition

The relationship between organisms in which both are harmed

66

Competition for Mates

Sexual selection is a strong selection pressure and so males compete by displays or fighting, and this results in sexual dimorphism

67

Territory

A territory is an area defended by an indavidual or group

68

Social Dominance

I'm a group territory, a hierarchy is established to minimise conflict and reduce predation and increase God compared to being on their own

69

Agonistic Behaviour

Behaviour including all threat displays, submissive/dominance and trials of strength and reduce actual fighting

70

Reduction of Intraspecific Competition

Dispersal, difference in Niche (location),

71

Oviparous

Lay eggs

72

Viviparous

Produce live young

73

Courtship

Succession of signals that are exchanged between male and female which culminates in mating

74

Altricial Young

Young that enter the world blind and helpless and are characteristic of animals whose young are protected

75

Precocial Young

Are born in advanced state and are able to fend for themselves

76

Monogamy

A male mating with only one female in one breeding season

77

Polygyny

Males that mate with multiple females in one season

78

Polygynandry

Co-Operative breeding where young are reared by several adults